Reaching the Nations

Netherlands

By David Stewart and Matt Martinich

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Geography

Area: 41,543 square km.  Occupying lowland plains along the North Sea, the Netherlands borders Germany and Belgium.  Many coastal areas consist of polders, which use dikes to prevent the flow of water onto reclaimed tracts of land that were formerly flood plains, swamps, or coastal sea floor.  Consequently, large areas of the country are below sea level.  There are some hills in the southeast.  Temperate marine climate occurs, modifying temperature to generate cool summers and mild winters with frequent precipitation.  One of Europe's largest rivers, the Rhine and its tributaries (Meuse and Schelde) empty into the North Sea in the south.  Flooding is a natural hazard.  Environmental issues include water pollution from industry and agricultural activity, air pollution, and acid rain.  The Netherlands are divided into twelve administrative provinces. 

Population: 16,783,092 (July 2010)       

Annual Growth Rate: 0.39% (2010)    

Fertility Rate: 1.66 children born per woman (2010)   

Life Expectancy: 76.94 male, 82.3 female (2010)

Peoples

Dutch: 80.7%

other European Union ethnic group: 5%

Indonesian: 2.4%

Turkish: 2.2%

Surinamese: 2%

Moroccan: 2%

Caribbean: 0.8%

other: 4.8%

Once homogenously Dutch, immigrants account for 20% of the population of the Netherlands today.  Several of these groups originated from former Dutch colonies, such as Indonesia and Suriname.  Turks and Moroccans constitute the largest Middle Eastern/North African nationalities. 

Languages: Dutch (81.5%), Limburgish (4.2%), Gronings (3.5%), Frisian (2.8%), Indonesian (1.8%), Arabic and Berber languages (1.4%), Zeeuws (1.3%), Turkish (1.1%), Flemish (0.7%), other (1.7%).  Dutch and Frisian are official languages.  Other indigenous languages like Limburgish are recognized on a provincial level.  Dutch is spoken by most minority groups as a second language and is the only language with over one million native speakers (13.7 million). 

Literacy: 99% (2003)

History

Germanic tribes inhabited the region, which was partially conquered by the Romans in the first century B.C.  The Franks ruled between the fourth and eight centuries A.D, followed by the House of Burgundy and the Austrian Habsburgs.  The Spanish seized the Netherlands in the sixteenth century and the Dutch revolted under Willem of Orange in 1558.  The Republic of the United Netherlands formed in 1579 as a result of the Union of Utrecht, but only consisted of the seven northern provinces.  The Netherlands have also gone under the name of Holland.  During the next century, the Dutch expanded their influences worldwide as colonialism began in the West Indies and Southeast Asia.  War and declining technological superiority contributed to waning power in the eighteenth century.  Napoleonic France overran the monarchy in 1795 and the Netherlands remained part of France until 1815 when the Kingdom of the United Netherlands was established.  Belgium revolted and gained independence in 1830.  During the latter half of the nineteenth century, the Netherlands experienced progress and regained greater power through its colonial possessions.  The Netherlands professed neutrality during both World Wars, but was occupied by Nazi Germany between 1940 and 1945 and 75% of the Jewish population perished.  Dutch colonies became independent nations shortly after World War II or possess a high degree of autonomy as dependent areas still under Dutch sovereignty today.[1]  The Netherlands was among the original founding nations of the European Union and NATO.  In 1999, the euro currency was introduced.  In 2010, Caribbean Dutch possessions under the Netherland Antilles were reorganized, with Sint Maarten and Curacao becoming constituent countries under Dutch sovereignty.  The smaller islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba are special municipalities.  The Netherlands is a constitutional monarchy.

Culture 

Known as a land of tulips, windmills, and wooden shoes, the Netherlands has retained many native customs and traditions despite long periods of past foreign occupation.  Dutch painters have been world renowned for centuries and include Rembrandt, Vincent van Gogh, and Piet Mondrian.  The Dutch traditional festival of Sint Nicolaas on December fourth features Sinterklaas, which combined with Father Christmas has led to the American figure of Santa Claus.[2]  Despite a rich Christian past, the Netherlands is among the most secular European nations as only a small minority actively practice their faith.  Cuisine varies by location and is influenced by nearby countries like France and Germany.  Soups, breads, pastries, meats, and alcohol are common foods.   Legalized prostitution occurs in Amsterdam's red light district; the government has sought to reduce its size as crime and human rights violations have increased.  Cigarette and alcohol consumption rates and rates of illicit drug use are high compared to world averages. 

Economy

GDP per capita: $39,400 (2009) [84.9% of US]

Human Development Index: 0.890

Corruption Index: 8.9

The economy takes an important role regionally as a transportation and industrial hub.  The Netherlands has outperformed many other European nations in attracting foreign investment.  The global financial crisis in the late 2000s took a heavy toll on the economy as exports declined by 25% due to the slowdown in demand for Dutch goods.  At present, the government is attempting to revitalize the economy by offering stimulus packages and bank bailouts.  Natural gas, oil, peat, salt, limestone, sand, gravel, and farmland are natural resources.  Services employ 80% of the labor force and generate 73% of the GDP whereas industry employs 18% of the work force and generates 25% of the GDP.  Major industries include food processing, engineering products, machinery, chemicals, petroleum, constructions, electronics, and fishing.  In 2008, the Netherlands was the world's fourteenth largest oil exporter, eight largest oil importer, and sixth largest natural gas exporter.  Agriculture accounts for less than three percent of the GDP and work force.  Primary crops include grains, potatoes, sugar beets, fruit, and vegetables.  Germany, Belgium, France, and the United Kingdom are primary trade partners. 

The Netherlands ranked as being perceived as the sixth least corrupt country worldwide.  Financial and administrative corruption are low, but money laundering vulnerability is a concern.  Illicit drugs are produced and trafficked throughout Europe, especially ecstasy and marijuana.  The Netherlands is a significant transshipment point for cocaine, heroin, and hashish.  

Faiths

Christian: 50%

Muslim: 5.8%

other: 2.2%

none: 42%

Christians

Denominations  Members  Congregations

Catholic   2,685,295

Jehovah's Witnesses  30,469  397  

Latter-day Saints  8,901  33

Seventh Day Adventists  4,845  54   

Religion

The Netherlands is one of the most secular European nations.  The number of nonreligious individuals continues to increase and almost account for half of the entire population.  Estimates of the percentages of those affiliated with a particular religious group differ as a report conducted by the Scientific Council for government Policy found that 51.6% of the population had some religious affiliation in 2006 and 43.4% of the population was Christian.  The Social Planning Bureau found that percentage of the population that were church members decline from 76% in 1958 to 30% in 2006 (16% Catholic and 14% Protestant).  Catholics are the largest religious group.  16% of the population regularly attends a Christian church.  There were an estimated 850,000 Muslims in 2007, most of which are Turkish or Moroccan immigrants.  Approximately 200,000 Muslims are practicing.  Hindus number between 100,00 and 215,000 and primarily consist of Surinamese immigrants of Indian ancestry.  The number of Jews is estimated between 30,000 to 45,000 and 25% belong to an active Jewish organization.[3]   

Religious Freedom

Persecution Index:

The constitution protects religious freedom and grants the government authority to restrict religious practices if they become a risk to public order, traffic safety, or public health.  The government upholds religious freedom guaranteed by the constitution and diligently works to foster an environment of religious tolerance.  Public speech which incites hatred toward a religious group is a crime and has been an area of conflict due to freedom of speech.  Common Christian holidays are recognized by the government.   Religious groups are not required to register with the government to operate, but certain rights and privileges such as tax exemption status are only bestowed upon registered religious groups.  The Dutch government has worked with the Muslim majority to ensure that they may practice freely and assimilate into the local culture by requiring imams to complete a year-long integration course prior to practicing in the Netherlands.  There have been some recent reports of societal abuse of religious freedom targeting Muslims and Jews, which has been condemned by the government.[4]

Largest Cities

Urban: 82%

Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht, Eindhoven, Tilburg, Almere, Groningen, Breda, Nijmegen, Enschede, Apeldoorn, Haarlem, Arnhem, Zaanstad, Amersfoort, Haarlemmermeer, s-Hertogenbosch, Zoetermeer, Zwolle, Maastricht, Dordrecht, Leiden, Emmen, Ede, Venlo.

Cities listed in bold have no LDS congregations.

19 of the 26 cities with over 100,000 inhabitants have an LDS congregation.  32% of the national population resides in the 26 largest cities. 

LDS History

The first known Latter-day Saint to travel to the Netherlands was Elder Orson Hyde who stopped for over a week in Amsterdam and Rotterdam en route to Jerusalem on a missionary journey in 1840.  Orson Hyde preached to Jewish rabbis during his stay, but the Church did not assign missionaries to the Netherlands until August 1861.  By May 1862, the missionaries baptized 14 converts and organized a branch in Amsterdam.  Missionaries serving in the Netherlands operated under the Swiss and German Mission until the creation of the Netherlands Mission in late 1864.[5]  Persecution worsened in the 1860s and 1870s, slowing missionary progress.  Full-time missionaries also struggled to learn Dutch proficiently.  The first Dutch-language tracts and church materials were translated in the 1860s.  The translation of the Book of Mormon in Dutch was completed by 1889.  Remaining LDS scriptures were translated by 1911.[6]  Belgium was assigned to the Netherlands Mission in 1891.[7]  During World War II, the Church withdrew the 54 full-time missionaries assigned to the Netherlands.  During the war, 393 members emigrated to the United States and 579 converts were baptized primarily though the efforts of sister member-missionaries.  Over 1,700 converts were baptized between 1921 and 1929.[8]  The Church began petitioning for official recognition from the government in the 1930s but did not obtain government recognition until August 1955.  Prior to this time, the Church was not able to own property and did not receive benefits granted to other officially recognized religious groups.  Dutch Latter-day Saints planted potatoes in abundance following World War II and sent 70 tons of excess potatoes to needy German LDS members.[9]  1952, LDS Church President David O. McKay visited the Queen of the Netherlands.[10]  In 1961, the Church organized its first stake in continental Europe in the Netherlands, named the Holland Stake, which was the first non-English-speaking stake organized in the LDS Church.  During the first 100 years of an LDS Church presence in the Netherlands, 4,500 full-time missionaries were assigned and over 14,000 converts were baptized - many of which emigrated to Utah.[11]  Seminary and institute began by the mid-1970s.  In 1996, President Hinckley visited and met with local members.[12]  In 2002, the Church consolidated the Netherlands Amsterdam Mission with the Belgium Brussels and Switzerland Geneva Missions, resulting in the formation of the Belgium Brussels/Netherlands Mission.[13]  In 2005, the Netherlands was included in the Church's European tour of its Dead Sea Scrolls exhibit.[14]

Membership Growth

LDS Membership: 8,901 (2009)

There were 2,631 Latter-day Saints in 1930.[15]  Following World War II, there were 3,200 members.[16]  By 1973, there were over 7,000 Latter-day Saints.[17]  Membership fluctuated between 6,300 and 8,000 between the early 1970s and the mid-1990s.  Membership reached 7,500 in the mid-1990s and by year-end 2000, there were 7,778 Latter-day Saints.

Slow, consistent membership growth occurred in the 2000s as membership totaled 8,006 in 2003, 8,286 in 2005, and 8,548 in 2007.  Church membership generally increased by approximately 100 a year.  Annual membership growth rates in the 2000s varied from a low of 0.4% in 2001 to a high of 2.4% in 2005.  Nominal membership growth in the 2000s is primarily attributed to convert baptisms among the non-Dutch population, although church attendance remained stagnant or may have even declined over this period.   

In 2009, one in 1,886 was nominally LDS. 

Congregational Growth

Wards: 20 Branches: 13

There were three LDS congregations by 1865 which met in Amsterdam, Gorinchem, and Rotterdam.[18]  There were 16 branches by 1939.[19]  By 1973, there was one stake and four districts. At this time, the stake had four wards and four branches. [20]  The original Holland Stake was renamed The Hague Netherlands Stake upon the creation of additional stakes in Rotterdam (1978) and Apeldoorn (1989).  By year-end 2000, there were 43 LDS congregations (17 wards, and 26 branches).

Congregation consolidations occurred in the 2000s as the number of congregations declined to 37 in 2001, 36 in 2002, 35 in 2003, 34 in 2006, and 33 in 2009.  Between year-end 2000 and late 2010, the number of wards increased by three and the number of branches declined by 13.  Discontinued congregations in the 2000s include the Almelo, Amstelveen, Delft, Hoorn, Schiedam-Vlaardingen, Winterswijk, Ymond, and Zeist Branches, and one of the two original The Hague wards and the Krimpen aan den IJssel Ward.  The majority of discontinued congregations were in or near Rotterdam, The Hague, and Amsterdam.  Branches operating in Almere, Den Bosch, Gouda, Hengelo, Spijkenisse became wards during this period.

Activity and Retention

In 1973, the Church estimated that 800 Dutch-speakers from the Netherlands and Belgium would attend an area conference in Munich held later that year.[21]  In 1996, 2,000 Dutch Latter-day Saints attended a special meeting with President Hinckley.[22]  32,819 attended The Hague Netherlands Temple open house in 2002.[23]  The average number of members per congregation increased in the 2000s from 181 in 2000 to 270 in 2009.  406 were enrolled in seminary or institute during the 2008-2009 school year.  Most wards and branches appear to have between 50 and 100 active members.  Nationwide active membership is estimated at 2,500, or 30% of membership of record. 

Language Materials

Languages with LDS Scripture: Dutch, Indonesian, Arabic, Turkish, English

All LDS scriptures are available in Dutch, Indonesian, Arabic, and most common languages spoken in the European Union.  Only the Book of Mormon has been translated into Turkish.  Many unit, temple, Priesthood, Relief Society, Sunday School, young women, primary, missionary, and family history materials are available in Turkish. 

Meetinghouses

The first LDS meetinghouse began construction in 1937 in Rotterdam.  The number of meetinghouses greatly multiplied in the 1960s and by 1966, there were 38 LDS meetinghouses in the Netherlands.[24]  In 2010, most, if not all, LDS congregations met in church-built meetinghouses or church-owned buildings.  There were 32 meetinghouses in late 2010.

Humanitarian and Development Work

Humanitarian and development work sponsored by the LDS Church has focused on sending aid outside the country or conducting small-scale service projects in the Netherlands.  In 1990, Dutch members gathered food to send to the needy in Romania.[25]  In 1995, more than 650 attended a workshop sponsored by the LDS Church and other groups which taught parents how to deal with challenges raising youth.[26]  In 1997, members from the Zoetermeer Ward cleaned their community and the event was covered by four local newspapers.[27]

 

Opportunities, Challenges and Prospects

Religious Freedom

Freedom of religion protected by the constitution which is upheld by local laws and government policy allows the LDS Church to assemble, worship, and proselyte freely.  Foreign full-time missionaries frequently serve and report no significant challenges obtaining needed visas or documentation to proselyte. 

Cultural Issues

The highly secularized Dutch society has resisted LDS missionary efforts for decades, result in stagnant to slow membership growth.  Promiscuity, drug use, and high alcohol consumption rates create a challenging environment for Dutch members to live church teachings and for full-time missionaries when finding and teaching investigators.  Nominalism among Dutch Christians is an obstacle for missionary efforts as many have traditional ties to their churches but do not engage in regular religious practices.  The Church has gained greater success in recent years with immigrant groups, but has added native Dutch converts in small numbers.  High cost of living has reduced the practicality of assigning greater numbers of full-time missionaries to a population that exhibits low receptivity.  Member-missionary efforts will be pivotal toward overcoming these issues as local members are familiar with cultural challenges and provide long-term support for investigators and new converts. 

National Outreach

32% of the national population resides in a city with an LDS congregation and each of the Netherlands' 12 administrative provinces have an LDS mission outreach center. Cities with over 100,000 inhabitants without an LDS congregation constitute five percent of the national population.  54% of the national population resides in the 233 cities with between 20,000 and 100,000 inhabitants, yet only 11 of these cities have current LDS mission outreach centers.  Past LDS mission outreach centers operated in an additional nine cities in this population range with 3.5% of the national population.  Many discontinued congregations operated in medium-sized cities near large cities with an LDS ward or branch.  As LDS congregations have been consolidated, many of these cities receive less mission outreach today. 

Expanding national outreach will require the establishment of additional mission outreach centers in currently unreached or lesser reached cities.  However, based on the trend of congregation consolidations, the Church will likely not establish a presence in these cities until currently operating LDS wards and branches are fully self-sustaining and contain enough active members to divide.  The creation of dependent branches and groups operated by local members in the largest cities without LDS mission outreach centers (like Tilburg, Enschede, Haarlemmermeer, Maastricht, Ede, and Venlo) and lesser reached sectors of Amsterdam and The Hague provides a dynamic, flexible approach toward addressing declining national outreach issues.   

The Church maintains an Internet site for the Netherlands in Dutch at http://www.kerkvanjezuschristus.nl/.  The website includes local news, explanations of church teachings, links to other church websites, and contact information to request missionary visits.  Use of the website by local members can help improve member-missionary efforts and expand national outreach.  By 2005, the Netherlands LDS country website had an average of 8,000 hits a day.[28]  When the Church launched its first official website in the mid-1990s, the Netherlands ranked tenth among countries with the most visitors to the new site.[29]

Member Activity and Convert Retention

The average number of Latter-day Saints per congregation increased by nearly one hundred during the 2000s as a result of slow membership growth and consistent congregation consolidations.  The declining number of congregations is a major concern for sustaining church growth over the long term as the trend has been perpetuated for a decade and 23% of the functioning LDS congregations in 2000 no longer operate.  Reasons for congregation consolidations in the Netherlands include a lack of active members, plans to make a larger congregation (a ward) out of multiple smaller congregations (branches), and inadequate numbers of Priesthood holders to fill leadership positions.  Congregations more distant to Latter-day Saint populations often exacerbate member inactivity rates as less-active and active members decrease the regularity they attend church meetings due to increased travel times and inconvenience.  Fewer mission outreach centers often lead to a decline in the number of convert baptisms and reduced national outreach potential. 

The lack of language-specific congregations to meet the needs of non-Dutch speakers creates challenges to retain converts from the most receptive populations to the LDS Church in the Netherlands, namely immigrants from Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean.  Transient lifestyles and limited traditions of religious service among immigrant groups have also contributed to low retention among immigrant converts.  The creation of such language-specific congregations may be helpful for the long-term sustainability of church growth among these populations, but the diversity of membership has not achieved sufficient numbers of speakers of specific languages to allow non-Dutch congregations to be organized

Ethnic Issues and Integration

Dutch LDS congregations have fellowshipped the increasing number of immigrant converts in recent years.  No major ethnic integration issues have been reported, likely due to Dutch society's increasingly cosmopolitan atmosphere.  Language barriers and cultural differences may create some challenges integrating immigrant groups which come from nations that were not former Dutch colonies, like North Africa and Turkey, but there are no appreciable numbers of LDS converts from these nations in the Netherlands at present.  The Church has yet to perform organized missionary outreach among Muslims in the Netherlands.

Language Issues

Over 80% of the population speaks Dutch as a native language and many of the remaining 20% speak Dutch as a second language, resulting in widespread use of Dutch by full-time missionaries in proselytism.  Higher receptivity to the LDS Church among immigrant groups warrants greater language-specific outreach in order to reach the growth potential among these populations.  Some full-time missionaries have been assigned to work specifically with non-Dutch populations and teach in their respective languages, especially Chinese.

Missionary Service

The Netherlands remains dependent on foreign full-time missionaries to staff its missionary needs as a result of few missionary-aged youth converts and low birthrates among the Dutch Latter-day Saint population.  Increasing numbers of immigrant Latter-day Saints may help increase the self-sustainability of national full-time missionary numbers due to higher birthrates than the indigenous population.  However, these prospects will rely on improved retention of immigrant converts and successful long-term assimilation into congregations. 

Leadership

The LDS Church has held a long-standing tradition of local leadership.  During World War II, the entire Netherlands Mission presidency was made up of local Dutch members.[30]  The Church benefits from strong, capable local leadership which allows for the operation of three stakes.  Few if any church employees serve in leadership positions, indicating developed self-sustainability of local priesthood holders.  Several international Church leaders were born in the Netherlands and emigrated to the United States in the twentieth century.  All past temple presidents and their wives of the Hague Netherlands Temple resided outside of the Netherlands prior to their call, but most had Dutch heritage or were born in the Netherlands.  Only one Dutch member residing in the Netherlands has been called to an international church leadership position.  In 2005, Chrstiaan H. Kleijweg from Oorschoten was called as an Area Seventy.[31]

Temple

Announced in August 1999, The Hague Netherlands Temple began construction in 2000 in the Zoetermeer area[32] and was dedicated in 2002.  The temple services the Netherlands and Belgium and operates well under capacity.  In 2010, four endowment sessions were scheduled on Thursdays and Fridays and three sessions were scheduled on Saturdays.  The temple is not open Sunday through Wednesday. 

Comparative Growth

Annual membership growth rates of less than three percent and consistent congregation consolidations during the 2000s were representative of most Western European nations like the Netherlands.  The percentage of Latter-day Saints in the population compares to France and Belgium and is higher than Central and Eastern Europe, but lower than Scandinavia, the Iberian Peninsula, and the British Isles.  LDS member activity and convert retention rates appear higher in the Netherlands than in Belgium as the Netherlands has 50% more members than Belgium, but nearly twice as many congregations.  Netherlands has the fourth smallest LDS membership among countries worldwide with temples.  Temples in other European countries which have comparatively-sized temple districts appear better utilized than The Hague Netherlands Temple.  The Copenhagen Denmark Temple district includes three stakes and a handful of branches, but in 2010 was open for one more additional day a week compared to The Hague Netherlands Temple and scheduled two more endowment sessions on Fridays.  The Stockholm Sweden Temple services four stakes and three districts, but scheduled nine endowment sessions on Tuesdays and Fridays, five on Wednesdays and Thursdays, and four on Saturdays in 2010.  Seminary and institute attendance rates rank average to below average for Europe.    

Christian groups participating in active mission outreach report slow growth and have been largely unable to achieve breakthroughs with the nonreligious population.  Seventh Day Adventists achieve slow but consistent congregational and membership growth as the number of churches increased from 47 to 54 and membership increased from 4,132 to 4,524 between 1998 and 2008.  Jehovah's Witnesses appear to be the most successful of missionary-minded Christian groups and have grown to over 30,000 active members meeting in nearly 400 congregations.  Witnesses baptized almost 500 converts in 2009 and have experienced sustainability from effective member-missionary activity programs and high baptismal standards. 

Future Prospects

The Netherlands has consistently demonstrated membership growth year to year, but the trend of congregation consolidations has yet to reverse.  Establishing a strong LDS presence among immigrant groups will be crucial to improve member activity and convert retention rates among the most receptive populations.  Stagnant growth and low receptivity exhibited by the indigenous Dutch population is concerning and appears to be at the forefront of the decline in national outreach in recent years together with fewer full-time missionaries assigned.  Greater self-sustainability of full-time missionary numbers as well as minimizing emigration among Dutch members will be required to maintain membership growth, expand national outreach, and maintain the Dutch LDS community.


[1]  "Background Note: The Netherlands," Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs, 16 July 2010.  http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3204.htm

[2]  "Culture of the Netherlands," Wikipedia.org, retrieved 3 December 2010.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_the_Netherlands

[3]  "Netherlands," International Religious Freedom Report 2010, 17 November 2010.  http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2010/148969.htm

[4]  "Netherlands," International Religious Freedom Report 2010, 17 November 2010.  http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2010/148969.htm

[5]  "The Church in Europe", Ensign, Aug. 1973, 16-35

[6]  "Netherlands," Deseret News 2010 Church Almanac, p. 537-538

[7]  "A temple in the land of tulips and windmills," LDS Church News, 24 August 2002.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/42325/A-temple-in-the-land-of-tulips-and-windmills.html

[8]  "Netherlands," Deseret News 2010 Church Almanac, p. 537-538

[9]  "The Church in Europe", Ensign, Aug. 1973, 16-35

[10]  Murdock, Wade.  "David O. McKay: Ambassador of the Faith", Ensign, Jan. 2005, 40-46

[11]  "The Church in Europe", Ensign, Aug. 1973, 16-35

[12]  Hart, John L.  "Prophet visits 5 European countries, asks saints to keep commandments," LDS Church News, http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/27991/Prophet-visits-5-European-countries-asks-saints-to-keep-commandments.html

[13]  Stahle, Shaun D.  "Seven new missions created," LDS Church News, 9 March 2002.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/41426/Seven-new-missions-created.html

[14]  Nogeira, Clemtina.  "Exhibit in Portugal of Dead Sea Scrolls," LDS Church News, 2 July 2005.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/47511/Exhibit-in-Portugal-of-Dead-Sea-Scrolls.html

[15]  "Netherlands temple announced," LDS Church News, 28 August 1999.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/36296/Netherlands-temple-announced.html

[16]  Hartley, William G.  "War and Peace and Dutch Potatoes", Ensign, July 1978, 19

[17]  "The Church in Europe", Ensign, Aug. 1973, 16-35

[18]  "Netherlands," Deseret News 2010 Church Almanac, p. 537-538

[19]  "Netherlands," Deseret News 2010 Church Almanac, p. 537-538

[20]  "The Church in Europe", Ensign, Aug. 1973, 16-35

[21]  "The Munich Area General Conference", Ensign, Aug. 1973, 40

[22]  Hart, John L.  "Prophet visits 5 European countries, asks saints to keep commandments," LDS Church News, http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/27991/Prophet-visits-5-European-countries-asks-saints-to-keep-commandments.html

[23]  Call, Elder O. Jay and Sister Jeanette.  "Netherlands temple dedication," LDS Church News, http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/42403/Netherlands-temple-dedication.html

[24]  "Netherlands," Deseret News 2010 Church Almanac, p. 537-538

[25]  "Members in Netherlands gather food," LDS Church News, 17 March 1990.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/19764/Members-in-Netherlands-gather-food.html

[26]  "From around the world," LDS Church News, 29 July 1995.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/25993/From-around-the-world.html

[27]  "From around the World," LDS Church News, 6 December 1997.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/29112/From-around-the-World.html

[28]  "Country sites aid missionary effort," LDS Church News, 26 February 2005.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/46935/Country-sites-aid-missionary-effort.html

[29]  "Internet users find LDS web site," LDS Church News, 1 March 1997.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/29302/Internet-users-find-LDS-web-site.html

[30]  "Netherlands," Deseret News 2010 Church Almanac, p. 537-538

[31]  "38 new Area Seventies called, 37 are released," LDS Church News, 9 April 2005.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/47147/38-new-Area-Seventies-called-37-are-released.html

[32]  "Pylons mark progress of temple," LDS Church News, 27 January 2001.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/39240/Pylons-mark-progress-of-temple.html