Reaching the Nations

Hong Kong

By David Stewart and Matt Martinich

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Geography

Area: 1,104 square km.  Comprising the Kowloon Peninsula and more than 200 islands, Hong Kong is located in East Asia and is under Chinese administration as a special administrative region.  The largest islands are Hong Kong Island and Lantau Island.  Steep mountains and hilly terrain occupy most areas with some lowlands in the north.  The climate is subtropical and characterized by hot, rainy weather in the spring and summer and cool, humid weather in the winter.  Monsoon rains deliver most of Hong Kong's precipitation in the summer months.  Typhoons are a natural hazard and air and water pollution are environmental issues.

Population: 7,089,705 (July 2010)       

Annual Growth Rate: 0.476% (2010)    

Fertility Rate: 1.04 children born per woman (2010)   

Life Expectancy: 79.24 male, 84.88 female (2010)

Peoples

Chinese: 95%

Filipino: 1.6%

Indonesian: 1.3%

other: 2.1%

Languages: Cantonese (90.8%), English (2.8%), Mandarin (0.9%), other Chinese languages (4.4%), other (1.1%).  Cantonese and English are the official languages.  Over one-third of the population speaks English.[1]

Literacy: 93.5% (2002)

History

Archaeologists have dated the earliest human settlement of Hong Kong back to 3,000 B.C.  Han Chinese began settling the region in the seventh century A.D.  Trade with Britain commenced in the early eighteenth century and the British annexed Hong Kong following the Chinese defeat in the First Opium War in 1842.  Conflict between the Chinese and British formally came to a close at the end of the Second Opium War in 1858.  The geographic size of Hong Kong expanded dramatically in 1898 as a result of the United Kingdom obtaining a 99-year lease of the New Territories from the Chinese government out of defense concerns.  The British used Hong Kong as center of economic activity and commerce for East Asia during the twentieth century.  Following the communist takeover of mainland China, hundreds of thousands fled to Hong Kong.  During the latter half of the twentieth century, Hong Kong emerged as a regional economic power due to its success in manufacturing, tourism, finance, and commerce.  Consequently standards of living greatly improved, reaching some of the highest levels of life expectancy, GDP per capita, and literacy in Asia.  Sovereignty of Hong Kong transferred to China in 1997 when the British lease expired.  With the exception of foreign relations and defense, Hong Kong remains highly autonomous and will retain its economic, judicial, and political systems until 2047.[2] 

Culture 

Hong Kong represents a fusion of Western and Eastern cultures, attributed to long-term Chinese influence and approximately 160 years of British rule.  Consequently capitalism, materialism, and traditional Chinese religion are the dominant influences on society.  Most the population does not practice an organized religion but rather follows some aspects of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism.  There is a internationally-renowned, well-developed entertainment industry that produces many martial arts films.  Cuisine comprises a mixture of Chinese and Western foods.  Common recreational activities include swimming and hiking.  Cigarette and alcohol consumption rates compare to the worldwide average rates of use of these substances.  Hong Kong is regarded as one of the safest large cities in the world.

Economy

GDP per capita: $45,600 (2010) [96.2% of US]

Human Development Index: 0.862

Corruption Index: 8.4

International trade and finance drive the modernized economy which is highly integrated into regional and world trade markets.  Tourism is a major source of revenue and in recent years relaxed travel restrictions with mainland China has dramatically increased the number of tourists.  Strong economic growth has occurred for several decades and recovery from the global financial crisis was speedy.  A lack of affordable housing and dependence on international trade are economic challenges.  Hong Kong's excellent deepwater harbor is its primary natural resource; raw materials and food are imported.  Services generate 92% of the GDP whereas industry generates approximately 8% of the GDP.  Clothing, tourism, banking, shipping, electronics, and plastics are major industries.  46% of imports and 51% of exports are trafficked with mainland China.  The United States and Japan are also major trade partners. 

Hong Kong is perceived as being among the least-corrupt nations or territories worldwide, but is an international transshipment point for heroin and methamphetamine.  Illicit use of synthetic drugs has increased in recent years.  Hong Kong is a money laundering center due to its modern banking infrastructure. 

Faiths

Chinese religions: 21%

Christian: 15%

Muslim: 1.5%

other: 5.5%

none: 57%

Christians

Denominations  Members  Congregations

Protestant  550,000

Catholic  400,000

Latter-day Saints  24,114  31

Jehovah's Witnesses  5,156  64

Seventh Day Adventists  4,703  20 (includes Macau)

Religion

Although the Chinese population traditional followed Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism, most are not religiously active today.  Practitioners of Buddhism and Taoism number approximately 1.5 million and often worship at the same temples.  There are slightly over one million Christians; approximately half are Catholic and half are Protestant.  There are small numbers of Muslims, Hindus, Jews, and Sikhs.  800 Christian chapels and churches, 600 Buddhist and Taoist temples, five mosques, four synagogues, one Hindu temple, and one Sikh temple operate.[3]

Religious Freedom

Persecution Index:

The Basic Law protects religious freedom which is upheld by the government.  Christmas and the birth of Buddha are recognized national holidays.  Religious groups are no required to register with the government but groups must register to obtain government benefits.  There have been some exchanges of Catholic and Protestant clergy between Hong Kong and mainland China in recent years.  Mainland government authorities have pressured Hong Kong government personnel to restrict the activities of Falun Gong followers.[4]

Largest Cities

Urban: 100%

Kowloon, Victoria, Tuen Mun, Sha Tin, Tseung Kwan O, Kwai Chung, Tin Shui Wai, Tseun Wan, Tai Po, Fanling - Sheung Shui, Ma On Shan, Tsing Yi, Aberdeen , Yuen Long.

All 14 cities with over 100,000 inhabitants have an LDS congregation.  92% of the population resides in the 14 most populous cities. 

LDS History

The first Latter-day Saint missionaries arrived in April 1853 and served in Hong Kong for four months until returning to the United States as they were unable to learn the language and faced challenges adapting to local culture.  In 1949, LDS apostle Elder Matthew Cowley dedicated Hong Kong for missionary work on Victoria Peak; the following year full-time missionaries were assigned and began proselytism.  By the end of 1950, there were eight missionaries serving in Hong Kong and the first convert baptisms occurred.  The Korean War temporarily closed full-time missionary activity in the early 1950s.  Based in Hong Kong, the Southern Far East Mission was organized in 1955 and administered Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Hong Kong.  The Chinese translation of the Book of Mormon was first printed in 1965 and remaining LDS scriptures were printed in 1974.  In 1969, the mission was named the Hong Kong-Taiwan Mission and two years later the mission divided, resulting in the Hong Kong Mission administering Hong Kong and Macau.[5]  Both seminary and institute were operating by 1974.  In 1989, the Church opened an Institute of Religion that could accommodate up to 500 students.[6]  In 1996, the Church completed its second temple on mainland Asia and its first high-rise temple in Hong Kong.  LDS leaders met with the chief executive of Hong Kong in 1997 who assured the Church that religious freedom would remain following the transfer of Hong Kong from British to Chinese administration.[7]  In 2005, President Hinckley dedicated a new church administration building in Hong Kong for the Asia Area.[8]  Hong Kong is assigned to the Asia Area and the area offices have been located in Hong Kong for several decades.

Membership Growth

LDS Membership: 24,114 (2009)

Membership stood at 1,300 in 1959 and increased to 3,000 in 1964.[9]  There were 13,000 Latter-day Saints in 1984[10] and 14,000 members in 1987.  Membership increased to 18,000 in 1993 and 19,000 in 1997.  By year-end 2000, there were 20,702 members. 

Slow membership growth continued into the 2000s as membership reached 21,302 in 2002, 21,876 in 2004, 22,556 in 2006, and 23,223 in 2008.  Annual membership growth rates ranged from one to two percent between 2001 and 2008.  In 2009, membership increased by 3.8%.  The China Hong Kong Mission generally baptizes 300 approximately converts a year.  In 2009, one in 294 was LDS.     

Congregational Growth

Wards: 23 Branches: 9

The first district was organized in 1965.[11]  The Hong Kong Stake was organized in 1976.  Additional stakes were organized in Kowloon East (1980), New Territories (1984), Tolo Harbour (1984), and Kowloon (1994).  To meet the needs of non-Cantonese speakers, the Hong Kong China (English) District was organized in 1998.  In 2006, the Hong Kong China Kowloon East Stake was consolidated with neighboring stakes. 

The first two branches were organized in 1955.  There were eight congregations by 1959,[12] increasing to 24 in 1987, 32 in 1993, and 35 in 1997.  By year-end 2001, the number of congregations reached a high of 41.  The number of wards increased from 23 in 1987 to 24 in 1993, 25 in 1997, and 28 in 2000. 

Ten congregations were consolidated in the 2000s as the number of congregations declined to 39 in 2002, 37 in 2003, 36 in 2005, 33 in 2006, 32 in 2008, and 31 in 2010.  During this period the English-speaking Peninsula 1st Branch was discontinued and the English-speaking Victoria 2nd Branch and Mandarin-speaking Victoria 3rd Branch were organized.  Cantonese-speaking units discontinued in the 2000s include the Sau Kei Wan Branch, and the Fanling, Kowloon City, Kwai Chung 1st (YSA), Ngau Tau Kok (YSA), Pok Fu Lam, Shun Lee, and Tuen Mun 1st Wards.  The Tseung Kwan O Ward was organized and the Tsing Yi Branch became a ward. 

Activity and Retention

The LDS Church in Hong Kong experiences extremely low member activity rates.  The average number of members per congregation increased from 583 in 2000 to 754 in 2009.  Active members are generally highly devoted to the Church.  There were 200 institute students in 1989 and 81% of institute students attended four years of classes and graduated from the program.[13]  In 1992, nearly 3,000 attended a regional conference, the highest attendance for any LDS meeting at the time[14] and accounting for approximately 17% of church membership at the time.  5,000 attended the dedicatory services of the Hong Kong China Temple in 1996, most of whom were from Hong Kong.[15]   More than 100 youth participated in a youth conference in 2000.[16]  That same year, 250 non-Chinese members attended a special temple day for the International District.[17]  551 were enrolled in seminary and institute during the 2008-2009 school year.  Active membership in most wards ranges from 50 to 100 whereas most branches have approximately 50 active membership.  Full-time missionaries serving in one ward in 2010 reported that 40 of approximately 2,000 members were active.  Nationwide active membership is estimated to ranged between 3,000 and 4,000, or 12-16% of total membership. 

Finding and Public Affairs

Nearly 2,000 attended LDS meetinghouse open houses held systematically through the four stakes in Hong Kong in 1988.  Missionaries obtained over 750 referrals from the open house event.[18]  A similar open house finding event attracted 2,524 nonmembers to meetinghouses in 1991.[19]  In 1992, the Hong Kong Island Stake held a free musical performance to the public in an effort to invite the general public into an LDS meetinghouse and talk with members.[20]  13,000 attended the temple open house in 1996.  In 1998, BYU-Hawaii students performed Hawaiian dances that were viewed by approximately 2,000 spectators.[21]  Over 700 youth participated in a church basketball tournament in 1999; the number of participants increased to 1,200 in 2000.[22]  Local members organized a teacher appreciation program in 1995 that recognized over 6,000 members by 2000.[23]  The Church sold one of its oldest buildings at less than market value to the city of Hong Kong in 2004 for the city to turn into a museum.  Over 10,700 attended an open house following the sale of the building.[24]

Language Materials

Languages with LDS Scripture: Chinese (traditional and simplified characters), Tagalog, Indonesian, English

All LDS scriptures and most church materials are available in Chinese (simplified and traditional characters), Tagalog, and Indonesian.  The Liahona magazine has monthly issues in Chinese and Tagalog and bimonthly issues in Indonesian.

Meetinghouses

The first church-built meetinghouse was completed in 1966.[25]  There were 17 LDS meetinghouses in Hong Kong in 1988.[26]  In early 2011, there were at least 16 LDS meetinghouses. 

Health and Safety

The SARS outbreak in 2003 interfered with the functioning of the church and missionary activity as the arrival of new missionaries was delayed and local members held small sacrament meetings in their homes.[27] 

Humanitarian and Development Work

The Church has offered humanitarian and development assistance to mainland China from Hong Kong, such as contributing $20,000 for relief to earthquake victims in Yunnam in 1996.[28]  Over 120 members participated in a tree-planting service project in which more than 150 trees were planted in Sai Kung West Park in 1999.[29]  Latter-day Saint youth assembled over 400 hygiene and sewing kits to distribute to Mongolia and India in 2000.[30]  In 2003, local church membership and missionaries assembled 3,000 hygiene kits to distribute to the needy in Hong Kong in wake of the SARS outbreak.[31]  The Church donated 250 wheelchairs to the disabled in 2004.[32] 

 

Opportunities, Challenges and Prospects

Religious Freedom

Latter-day Saints enjoy full religious freedom in Hong Kong and may worship, assemble, and proselyte.  Foreign full-time missionaries are assigned regularly.  As a result of widespread religious freedom, Chinese mainland China desiring to be baptized into the Church sometimes briefly visit Hong Kong, are taught by full-time missionaries, and baptized before returning back to the mainland in matter of several hours. 

Cultural Issues

Materialism, high cost of living, and secularism are major cultural challenges that frustrate LDS mission outreach.  Full-time missionaries and members struggle to develop mission outreach approaches that are effective in proselytizing the highly irreligious population that exhibits little familiarity with Christianity.  Many converts are not retained as they fail to develop habitual church attendance and personal gospel study habits.  The development of a Latter-day Saint community over the past half century has provided a social outlet for members to associate and rely upon to avoid cultural practices and social pressures not in harmony with LDS teachings. 

Extensive genealogical records handed down for millennia offer excellent opportunities for local members to engage in temple work and use family history research as a segue for member-missionary work and finding.  In 2000, one local member obtained a 175-volume set of his family's genealogical records containing over 200,000 ancestor names dating back to A.D. 602.[33]

National Outreach

Small geographic size, a long-standing Latter-day Saint presence, and consistent numbers of full-time missionaries assigned have resulted in excellent levels of national outreach as approximately 94% of the population resides in cities with an LDS congregation.  All cities with over 85,000 inhabitants have a mission outreach center.  Most unreached or lesser-reached cities have fewer than 24,000 inhabitants.

Congregation consolidations in the 2000s have not eliminated outreach in many communities as full-time missionaries proselyte in many affected communities and many active members continue to reside in these locations, but declining numbers of congregations has resulted in many urban areas becoming lesser reached by LDS congregations and local leaders.  With 82,700 inhabitants, Pok Fu Lam is the most populous city without an LDS congregation and at one time a ward once operated in Pok Fu Lam, but the unit was discontinued in the 2000s.  Assigning local Chinese leaders to head the reestablishment of dependent congregations in some lesser-reached areas many reverse the trend of congregational decline and provide for long-term support and mentoring that does not detract from LDS missionary resources abroad.

Expensive and limited real estate is a challenge for the Church to open additional meetinghouses, resulting in multiple congregations utilizing the same LDS meetinghouses.  Long travel distances to LDS meetinghouses for some can reduce church attendance levels.

Hong Kong ranked 30th among countries with the most visitors to the Church's website in 1997.[34]  The Church operates a country website for Hong Kong available in English at http://www.lds.org.hk/en/ and in traditional Chinese characters at http://www.lds.org.hk/.  The Internet site provides local news; meetinghouse locations and times; explanation of LDS doctrines and teachings; and links to LDS scriptures translated into traditional characters.  Use of the website in member-missionary activity can enhance national outreach and provide accurate information on the Internet to the general population. 

Member Activity and Convert Retention

Full-time missionaries and local members engage regularly in reactivation and less-active work, but these efforts often yield little success.  Low standards for convert baptisms, rush to baptize prospective converts quickly with little emphasis on prebaptismal preparation and gospel habits, and the lack of daily religious practice in local culture has created a challenging environment for convert retention and retaining current levels of member activity.  Reactivation efforts by full-time missionaries draw large amounts of mission resources, delaying the progress of mission outreach in other more receptive nations and areas. 

Ethnic Issues and Integration

The Church has experienced no significant ethnic integration issues in Hong Kong as the population is homogenously Cantonese-speaking Chinese.  English and Mandarin-speaking congregations effectively provide outreach for non-Cantonese speakers and diminish ethnic integration challenges by segregating members by language usage. 

Language Issues

Widespread use of Cantonese and English simplify mission outreach and require fewer language-specific resources.  Constituting their own district, seven English-speaking branches and one Mandarin-speaking branch meet the needs of non-Cantonese speakers.  Prospects appear favorable for the establishment of a second Mandarin-speaking branch on the New Territories area in the coming years as many are unable to travel to Hong Kong Island to attend the Victoria 3rd (Mandarin) Branch.  Mandarin-speakers have among the most receptive populations to the Church in Hong Kong. 

Missionary Service

The Southern Far East Mission had 102 missionaries in 1959, including 12 local members serving full-time missions.[35]  In 1988, mission leadership credited the support of local church leaders to the doubling of the number of local missionaries in an 18-month period who serving full-time missions in the Hong Kong Mission.[36]  There were 148 full-time missionaries in the mission that year.[37]  The sole Mandarin-speaking branch had ten full-time missionaries assigned in late 2009.  As of early 2011, approximately 5,000 full-time missionaries had served in Hong Kong since the establishment of the Church. 

Leadership

Local church leadership has been developed, but remains limited and strained due to responsibilities fulfilling leadership positions in Hong Kong while simultaneously providing mentoring and support for mainland Chinese Latter-day Saints while in compliance with PRC government regulations.  Church employees regularly serve in church leadership positions, such as stake presidencies.  In 1965, six of the eight branches had native Chinese branch presidents.[38]  In 1992, Chun Shing Johnson Ma from Kwai Chung was called as a regional representative.[39]  Karl S. Fansworth from Victoria was called as a mission president in 1993.[40]  In 1994, Chung Hei Patrick Wong from Tai Wai was called as a regional representative[41] and in 1995 he was called as an area authority.[42]  Kat Hing Ng from Tsuen Wan was called as the first Hong Kong China Temple president in 1995.[43]  In 1997, Stanley Tak-Chung Wan from the Pok Fu Lam was called to preside over the Hong Kong Mission.[44]  In 2002, D. Allen Anderson was called as an Area Seventy.[45]  Kuen Ling was called as an Area Authority in 2003.[46]  In 2004, Stanley Wan was called as an Area Authority.[47]  In 2007, D. Allen Andersen from Victoria was called to preside over the Mongolia Ulaanbaatar Mission.[48]

Temple

 Hong Kong is assigned to the Hong Kong China Temple district.  Announced in 1992 and dedicated in 1996, the Hong Kong China Temple administered most of Asia in early 2011.  In 2010, the Church completed a temple patron housing building capable of accommodating up to 50 individuals that travel long distances from mainland China, Southeast Asia, Mongolia, and the Indian subcontinent.  The temple is well-utilized by active Latter-day Saints as manifest by six endowment sessions scheduled Tuesdays through Fridays and five sessions scheduled on Saturdays.  Local members frequently staff the temple to accommodate the needs of temple patrons traveling from outside of Hong Kong. 

Comparative Growth

The Church in Hong Kong suffers from some of the poorest levels of member activity and convert retention in the world and had the lowest percentage of members enrolled in seminary in Asia in the late 2000s (2.4% in 2008).  Only Chile has a higher ratio of members to congregations than Hong Kong.  Membership and congregational growth trends have most closely mirrored Western Europe, albeit nominal church membership accounts for a greater percentage of the population in Hong Kong than any Western European or Asian country except for Portugal and Philippines.  Hong Kong boasts the fifth most stakes in Asia and the Hong Kong China Temple is among the busiest temples in nations with fewer than 30,000 Latter-day Saints.

Missionary-minded Christian groups generally report slow or stagnant church growth.  Adventists reported slow, consistent membership growth and stagnant congregational growth in the 2000s whereas Jehovah's Witnesses experienced moderate membership growth rates and operated 64 congregations in 2010.  These groups have relied on local members instead of outsourced missionary manpower to sustain growth.  Evangelicals have experienced stagnant growth for many years. 

Future Prospects

Continued strong church participation and activity among church-going Latter-day Saints in Hong Kong has sustained leadership capable of meeting the responsibilities demanded by stakes, but extremely low member activity rates among the general LDS membership threaten continued congregation consolidations and may compromise current levels of mission outreach over the medium term.  Quick-baptize policies and practices and low standards for convert baptisms have compromised the harvest of the Hong Kong Mission and have fueled very poor convert retention. Poor retention in turn has presented long-term challenges for strengthening the local church and has drained the resources of local congregations in efforts to reclaim less active and never-active members still on church rolls which have achieved little success.  Increasing standards for convert baptism and emphasizing the need to develop consistent gospel habits will be key to the Church's long-term prospects for real growth.  Another stake may be discontinued if congregations continue to close and increased convert retention and reactivation efforts do not come to greater fruition.  Materialism and high cost of living have contributed to low birth rates among Latter-day Saints and exacerbate low receptivity.  Local leaders stressing participation in seminary and institute may help address retention and member inactivity issues by providing opportunities for less-active members and new converts to socially integrate with active membership and strengthen their testimonies and doctrinal understanding. 


[1]  "Background Note: Hong Kong," Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs, 3 August 2010.  http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2747.htm

[2]  "Background Note: Hong Kong, "Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs," 3 August 2010.  http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2747.htm

[3]  "Background Note: Hong Kong, "Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs," 3 August 2010.  http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2747.htm

[4]  "China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, Macau)," International Religious Freedom Report 2010.  http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2010/148863.htm

[5]  Ricks, Kellene. "Pearls of the Orient", Ensign, Sept. 1991, 32

[6]  "Asia area: New institute opens," LDS Church News, 9 September 1989.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/18479/Asia-area--New-institute-opens.html

[7]  "Hong Kong Region leader greets LDS," LDS Church News, 3 May 1997.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/29181/Hong-Kong-Region-leader-greets-LDS.html

[8]  Hill, Greg.  "Hong Kong: Most significant experience," LDS Church News, 6 August 2005.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/47661/Hong-Kong-Most-significant-experience.html

[9]  "Hong Kong Temple begins to rise - Rendering shows temple as part of a five-story edifice," LDS Church News, 18 February 1995.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/26588/Hong-Kong-Temple-begins-to-rise----Rendering-shows-temple-as-part-of-a-five-story-edifice.html

[10]  Ricks, Kellene. "Pearls of the Orient", Ensign, Sept. 1991, 32

[11]  "Hong Kong Temple begins to rise - Rendering shows temple as part of a five-story edifice," LDS Church News, 18 February 1995.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/26588/Hong-Kong-Temple-begins-to-rise----Rendering-shows-temple-as-part-of-a-five-story-edifice.html

[12]  "Hong Kong Temple begins to rise - Rendering shows temple as part of a five-story edifice," LDS Church News, 18 February 1995.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/26588/Hong-Kong-Temple-begins-to-rise----Rendering-shows-temple-as-part-of-a-five-story-edifice.html

[13]  "Asia area: New institute opens," LDS Church News, 9 September 1989.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/18479/Asia-area--New-institute-opens.html

[14]  "From around the world," LDS Church News, 29 February 1992.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/22137/From-around-the-world.html

[15]  Avant, Gerry.  "Hong Kong Temple dedicated," LDS Church News, 1 June 1996.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/27973/Hong-Kong-Temple-dedicated.html

[16]  "Homantin, hong kong," LDS Church News, 19 August 2000.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/38334/Homantin-hong-kong.html

[17]  "Members enjoy temple blessings," LDS Church News, 23 September 2000.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/38517/Members-enjoy-temple-blessings.html

[18]  "First colony-wide open houses in Hong Kong result in 750 referrals," LDS Church News, 31 December 1988.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/17545/First-colony-wide-open-houses-in-Hong-Kong-result-in-750-referrals.html

[19]  "Asia area: 'Constancy amid change'," LDS Church News, 23 November 1991.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/20785/Asia-area-Constancy-amid-change-.html

[20]  "From around the world," LDS Church News, 5 September 1992.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/22444/From-around-the-world.html

[21]  "From around the World," LDS Church News, 8 August 1998.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/31097/From-around-the-World.html

[22]  "280 teams play in tournament," LDS Church News, 16 September 2000.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/38462/280-teams-play-in-tournament.html

[23]  "Hong Kong teachers recognized," LDS Church News, 29 April 2000.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/37687/Hong-Kong-teachers-recognized.html

[24]  Weaver, Sarah Jane.  "Hong Kong hall preserved by Church," LDS Church News, 17 April 2004.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/45434/Hong-Kong-hall-preserved-by-Church.html

[25]  Ricks, Kellene . "Pearls of the Orient", Ensign, Sept. 1991, 32

[26]  "First colony-wide open houses in Hong Kong result in 750 referrals," LDS Church News, 31 December 1988.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/17545/First-colony-wide-open-houses-in-Hong-Kong-result-in-750-referrals.html

[27]  Thornell, Linda.  "In a time of fear Asian members coping with SARS," LDS Church News, 3 May 2003.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/43705/In-a-time-of-fear-Asian-members-coping-with-SARS.html

[28]  "From around the world," LDS Church News, 23 March 1996.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/27312/From-around-the-world.html

[29]  "Adding to 'breathtaking scenery'," LDS Church News, 10 July 1999.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/36038/Adding-to-breathtaking-scenery.html

[30]  "Homantin, Hong Kong," LDS Church News, 19 August 2000.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/38334/Homantin-hong-kong.html

[31]  Thornell, David; Thornell, Linda.  "Preventing SARS," LDS Church News, 24 May 2003. 

[32]  "Wheelchairs donated," LDS Church News, 16 October 2004.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/46335/Wheelchairs-donated.html

[33]  Stahle, Shaun.  "Small events lead to major collection of family names," LDS Church News, 8 January 2000.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/37004/Small-events-lead-to-major-collection-of-family-names.html

[34]  "Internet users find LDS web site," LDS Church News, 1 March 1997.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/29302/Internet-users-find-LDS-web-site.html

[35]  Ricks, Kellene . "Pearls of the Orient", Ensign, Sept. 1991, 32

[36]  "From around the world," LDS Church News, 30 January 1988.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/17635/From-around-the-world.html

[37]  "First colony-wide open houses in Hong Kong result in 750 referrals," LDS Church News, 31 December 1988.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/17545/First-colony-wide-open-houses-in-Hong-Kong-result-in-750-referrals.html

[38]  Ricks, Kellene . "Pearls of the Orient", Ensign, Sept. 1991, 32

[39]  "New regional representatives," LDS Church News, 4 April 1992.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/22173/New-regional-representatives.html

[40]  "New mission presidents," LDS Church News, 23 January 1993.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/23667/New-mission-presidents.html

[41]  "New regional representatives," LDS Church News, 27 August 1994.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/24738/New-regional-representatives.html

[42]  "Church names area authorities," LDS Church News, 5 August 1995.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/26627/Church-names-area-authorities.html

[43]  "New temple president," LDS Church News, 19 August 1995.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/26227/New-temple-president.html

[44]  "New mission presidents," LDS Church News, 29 March 1997.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/29077/New-mission-presidents.html

[45]  "30 Area Authority Seventies sustained," LDS Church News, 13 April 2002.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/41666/30-Area-Authority-Seventies-sustained.html

[46]  "New Area Authority Seventies," LDS Church News, 19 April 2003.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/43636/New-Area-Authority-Seventies.html

[47]  "New Area Authority Seventies," LDS Church News, 24 April 2004.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/45458/New-Area-Authority-Seventies.html

[48]  "New mission presidents," LDS Church News, 21 April 2007.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/50484/New-mission-presidents.html