Reaching the Nations

Denmark

By David Stewart and Matt Martinich

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Geography

Area: 43,094 square km.  Geographically Scandinavia's smallest country, Denmark is located in Northern Europe and consists of the Jutland Peninsula and many islands in the Baltic Sea, notably Zealand (Sjaelland) and Funen (Fyn).  Germany borders the Jutland Peninsula.  Terrain primarily consists of flat, low-elevation plains.  Temperate climate modified by the surrounding ocean generate mild winters and cool summers and humid, overcast weather conditions.  Denmark controls the Danish Straits which bridge the North and Baltic Seas.  Flooding is a natural hazard.  Environmental issues include pollution and fresh water contamination from pesticides and animal waste.  Denmark is divided into five administrative regions.

Population: 5,515,575 (July 2010)       

Annual Growth Rate: 0.267% (2010)    

Fertility Rate: 1.74 children born per woman (2010)   

Life Expectancy: 76.11 male, 80.97 female (2010)

Peoples

Dane: 90%

other: 10%

Other ethnic groups consist of Germans, Faroese, Greenlanders, Eastern Europeans, and African immigrants. 

Languages: Danish (97%), other (3%).  Danish is the official language.  Faroese and German are recognized regionally.  English is commonly spoken as a second language.  Only Danish has over one million speakers (5.4 million).  

Literacy: 99% (2003)

History

The Danes were the first recorded inhabitants of the Jutland Peninsula and neighboring islands since antiquity and are of Gothic-Germanic stock.  Denmark emerged as a major regional power during the Viking age from the ninth to eleventh centuries and for a 30-year period was united with England under King Canute.  Christianity spread to Denmark in the twelfth century and the influence of the Catholic Church increased.  Tension between royalty and nobility increased during the late Middle Ages.  By the fourteenth century, Queen Margrete I brought Norway, Finland, Sweden, Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands under the Danish crown.  Danish rule over Sweden and Finland lasted until 1520 and the Danish provinces in present-day southern Sweden were lost to Sweden in 1658.  The Reformation arrived to Denmark in 1536 and over time nearly the entire population converted to Lutheranism.   Denmark allied with Napoleonic France in the early nineteenth century and ceded Norway to Sweden in 1814 following defeat.  By 1849, a constitutional monarchy form of government was established.  Following the loss of Schleswig-Holstein to Prussia in 1864, a policy of neutrality was adopted which was maintained during both world wars.  German occupation began in 1940 and liberation by Allied forces occurred in 1945.[1]  Denmark joined NATO in 1949 and the European Economic Community (the European Union) in 1973.  Over the past half century, economic growth and prosperity have contributed to Denmark's political and economic role in the European Union and northern Europe today.  Denmark has refused to participate in several aspects of the European Union's Maastricht Treaty, such as the adoption of the Euro currency and defense cooperation.

Culture 

The Danish possess a long-standing, proud heritage of scientists, researchers, philosophers, writers, architects, dancers, cinematographers, artists, and musicians that are internationally renowned for their cultural and scientific achievements.  Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen created the well-known Christus statue in the late 1820s and reproductions of the statue have been frequently used by the LDS Church in visitor centers and temple annexes.[2]  The term Danish has become synonymous with high quality craftsmanship for many products and interior designs.  Many museums and castles dot the landscape and are a tribute to Denmark's medieval history and Viking legacy.  The government has sought to preserve and encourage cultural uniqueness to Denmark, spending slightly over one percent of the 2008 public budget on culture.[3]  Society has grown increasingly more secular over the past century.  Cigarette and alcohol consumption rates are among the highest rates of use in the world.  Divorce rates are high. 

Economy

GDP per capita: $37,000 (2010) [78.1% of US]

Human Development Index: 0.866

Corruption Index: 9.3

Denmark has developed a modern, high-tech market economy heavily integrated into international trade that is well diversified and specialized in many sectors including renewable energy, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, and maritime shipping.  Government welfare redistributes wealth equally among the population.  The global financial crisis plummeted the economy into recession but the Danish economy remains one of the most financially secure economies in Europe.  The ageing population is an evolving challenge for maintaining economic growth.  Services employ 77% of the work force and generate 76% of the GDP whereas industry employs 20% of the work force and generates 23% of the GDP.  Metals, chemicals, food processing, machinery, clothing, electronics, construction, wood products, shipbuilding, pharmaceuticals, and medical equipment are major industries.  Agriculture accounts for less than three percent of the labor force and GDP.  Barley, wheat, potatoes, and sugar beets are common crops.  Additional agricultural products include fish, pork, and dairy products.  The primary trade partners include Germany, Sweden, and Norway.  Denmark experiences one of the lowest rates of corruption worldwide.

Faiths

Christian: 98%

Muslim: 2%

Christians

Denominations  Members  Congregations

Evangelical Lutheran  5,239,796

Catholic  38,000

Jehovah's Witnesses  14,282  203

Serbian Orthodox  7,000

Baptists  5,200

Latter-Day Saints  4,387  23

Pentecostal  3,700

Seventh-Day Adventists  2,498  45 (includes Greenland and the Faeroe Islands)

Religion

Official statistics from April 2010 indicate that 80.7% of the population is a member of the Evangelical Lutheran Church (ELC), a decline from the 1980s when over 90% of the citizens were members of the ELC.  A large number of those who have left the ELC have joined other Christian denominations.  Less than three percent of citizens attend the ELC regularly whereas up to 65% of citizens attend at least once annually for religious holidays and special ceremonies such as marriages and funerals.  Church attendance on religious holidays for Lutherans has increased in recent years.  Muslims account for the second largest religious group, comprise principally of immigrants, and are concentrated in the largest cities.  There are approximately 6,000 Jews and 4,400 Buddhists.[4] 

Religious Freedom

Persecution Index:

The constitution protects religious freedom which is upheld by the law.  The constitution declares that the Evangelical Lutheran Church (ELC) is the state church, demands that the state financially support the church, and stipulates that the ruling monarch must be a member of the Church.  Funding for the ELC primarily comes from a church tax paid by its members; government subsidies account for 12% of church revenue.  Only the ELC may officially register births and deaths.  Many Christian holidays are recognized as national holidays.  The government has approved 116 religious communities and churches to perform marriages, obtain residence permits for foreign religious workers, and receive some tax exemptions.  To register with the government a religious group must submit a document summarizing traditions, rules, and beliefs, a description of the group's most important practices, a list of members' and leaders' permanent addresses, and an audited financial statement.  Missionary work and proselytism may occur as long as they do not interfere with public order or morality.  Publics schools are required to teach students about the ELC.  There have been some societal instances of abuse of religious freedom targeting Jews and Muslims.  Occasional conflict occurs between Jewish and Muslim communities.[5]

Largest Cities

Urban: 87%

Copenhagen, Arhus, Odense, Aalborg, Esbjerg, Randers, Kolding, Horsens, Vejle, Roskilde.

 Cities listed in bold have no LDS congregations.

Eight of the ten of the largest cities have an LDS congregation.  37% of the national population resides in the ten most populous cities. 

LDS History

The first known Danes to join the LDS Church were Danish-Americans who were baptized in 1843 in Boston, Massachusetts.  In 1849, the Danish Constitution went into effect and granted religious freedom, allowing Elders Erastus Snow and Peter O. Hansen to open the Scandinavian Mission in Denmark the same year.  Fifteen converts were baptized in Denmark in August 1850 and later that year the first LDS branch was organized with 50 members.  A second branch was organized the following year and the Book of Mormon was translated into Danish, becoming the first foreign language translation of LDS scriptures.  By 1852, the first converts began emigrated to Utah to join the main body of Latter-day Saints.  By the end of 1869, approximately half of the LDS converts in the Scandinavian Mission emigrated to Utah.  In 1905, the Scandinavian Mission divide to create the Swedish Mission and by 1920 the Church organized the Danish Mission.  The Danish Mission president received permission from the government to perform marriages in 1970.[6]  Seminary and institute commenced in the mid-1970s.  LDS Church President Gordon B. Hinckley met with members in 1996.  In 1998, President Thomas S. Monson rededicated Denmark for missionary work.[7]  In 2000, Denmark was assigned to the Europe Central area[8] and in the late 2000 was reassigned to the Europe Area.  Latter-day Saints with Danish ancestry commemorated the emigration of early Danish converts in the 1850s by participating in a sea trek by ship from Denmark to the United States in 2001.[9]  In 2005, Elder L. Tom Perry met with civic and government leaders and explained how LDS Church teachings can answer many societal challenges.[10]

Membership Growth

LDS Membership: 4,387 (2009)

In 1857, 2,317 of the 3,353 members in the Scandinavian Mission were Danes (69%).  410 converts were baptized in Denmark and Norway in 1910.[11]  Between 1852 and 1900 approximately 18,000 Danish Latter-day Saints emigrated to Utah.[12] 

The number of convert baptisms varied from 50 and 200 a year between 1966 and 1973.[13]  There were approximately 4,500 Latter-day Saints in Denmark in 1975.[14]  Membership stood at 4,300 in 1987, 4,400 in 1993, and 4,600 in 1997.  Stagnant membership growth characterized the 2000s as membership ranged from a high of 4,519 in 2000 to a low of 4,336 in 2005.  Annual membership growth rates ranged from -2.1% in 2005 to a high of 0.6% in 2009.  By 2010, an estimated 30,000 Danes had joined the Church since 1850.[15]

The number of annual convert baptisms in the Arhus Denmark Stake between 2005 and 2009 ranged from a low of 20 in 2008 to a high of 40 in 2009.  Most convert baptisms in the stake were Danes in 2010.  Total membership in the Arhus Denmark Stake generally increased by 20 members a year in the late 2000s.  There were over 2,100 members in the Arhus Denmark Stake by year-end 2010.  In 2009, one in 1,257 was LDS. 

Congregational Growth

Wards: 13 Branches: 10

The first stake was organized in Copenhagen in 1974 followed by a second stake organized in Arhus in 1978.  There were 22 congregations in 1987, increasing to 23 in 1993 and 24 in 1997.  By year-end 2000, there were 25 congregations, including 14 wards.  The number of congregations declined to 22 in 2002 and increased to 23 in 2003 and 24 in 2004.  In 2005, there were 23 congregations.  Congregations consolidated in the 2000s include the Tastrup and Lyngby Wards, and the Helsingor Branch.  During the 2000s, the Horsens Branch became a ward.  In early 2011, the Arhus Denmark Stake had seven wards and six branches whereas the Copenhagen Denmark Stake had six wards and three branches.  The Denmark Copenhagen Mission Branch is also based in Denmark and services members residing in remote locations mainly in Greenland, Iceland, and the Faroe Islands.  In 2010, the Odense 2nd Ward was facilitating the establishment of an LDS congregation in Svendborg as a result of recent convert baptisms in the area.

Activity and Retention

Over 600 attended a regional conference for Scandinavia in 1966.  75 patriarchal blessings were given in 1971.[16]  700 members from Denmark and western Sweden attended the groundbreaking for the Copenhagen Denmark Temple.[17]  Over 1,000 attended a statue unveiling with Elder Russell M. Nelson commemorating the 150th anniversary of the establishment of the Church.[18]  Approximately 4,000 members from Denmark, western Sweden, and Iceland attended a member meeting with President Hinckley in 2004 prior to the dedication of the Copenhagen Denmark Temple.[19]  25,512 attended the temple open house and 3,419 attended the dedicatory services.[20]  368 were enrolled in seminary or institute during the 2008-2009 school year; approximately 100 more than the previous school year.  The average number of members per congregation slightly declined between 2000 and 2009 from 195 to 191.  

There were 30 members in the Rønne Branch in 1988.[21]  Before seminary and institute commenced in Copenhagen, only 20-40% of youth Latter-day Saints remained active.  By 1993, 75 to 80% of youth remained active due to attendance in seminary and institute which stressed the development of personal scripture study.  Reactivation efforts came to greater fruition in the early 1990s.[22]  The Nykøbing-Falster Branch had fewer than 20 active members in early 2011.  In mid-2010, 60 of the 200 members in the Arhus Ward were active.  The Arhus Denmark Stake reported no change in sacrament attendance during the late 2000s and sacrament meeting attendance accounted for 38% of church membership in the stake in late 2010.  Member activity rates for the Arhus Denmark Stake varied from a low of 20% to a high of 54% in late 2010.  Most wards appear to have between 50 and 100 active members whereas most branches tend to have fewer than 50 active membership.  Some branches have as few as 10 active members whereas some wards have as many as 120 active members.  Member activity rates for youth and children are high in the Arhus Denmark Stake (67%-87%) and approximately two-thirds of recent converts were retained in 2010.  Nationwide active membership is estimated at 1,500, or 35% of total membership. 

Finding

Nine television stations broadcasted a 30-minute program produced by choirs from three wards in the Odense area in 1988.[23]  Full-time sister missionaries assigned to the Rønne Branch were featured in a local newspaper and on a radio program in 1988.[24]  In 1993, a stake president was interviewed on one of the most popular television shows in Copenhagen.[25]  In 2007, 36 Latter-day Saint young single adults held a choir performance in the Cathedral of Copenhagen which was viewed by 160 spectators.[26]  That same year, members held a walk-a-thon and health fair in Copenhagen.[27]

Language Materials

Languages with LDS Scripture: Danish, German, Swedish, English

All LDS scriptures and most church materials are translated into Danish, German, and Swedish.  The Liahona magazine has twelve issues a year in Danish, German, and Swedish.  

Meetinghouses

The first church-built meetinghouse in Europe was built in Aalborg in 1907.[28]  There were 18 church-built chapels in 1974.[29]  In early 2011, there were 21 LDS meetinghouses, most of which were built by the Church. 

Humanitarian and Development Work

Humanitarian work has been limited to local members performing service projects or donating items for the needy both at home and abroad.  Danish members and participants in a walk-a-thon in 2007 collected over $1,800 in donations for the Danish Red Cross.[30]  Members participated in Helping Hands projects in 2010 as part of the celebration of the 160th anniversary of the Church in Denmark.  Projects included cleaning roads, serving the elderly, beautifying parks, and collecting toiletries and towels to send to Haiti to earthquake victims.[31]

 

Opportunities, Challenges and Prospects

Religious Freedom

Latter-day Saints face no governmental restrictions impeding worship, assembly, or proselytism.  Foreign missionaries serve regularly in Denmark.  The LDS Church is among the 116 religious communities with approval for performing marriages in Denmark.[32] 

Cultural Issues

Extremely low rates of church attendance and widespread secularism are the foremost barriers to LDS mission outreach in Denmark.  The lack of successful LDS missionary approaches tailored to a nominal Christian population with little regular religious involvement has resulted in stagnant membership growth for several decades.  Greater receptivity among non-Danes through full-time missionary finding efforts has resulted in increasing numbers of convert baptisms among immigrant groups, but many immigrant groups exhibit low to modest levels of convert retention due to ethnic integration issues, language barriers, and inordinate distances traveled to reach LDS meetinghouses, transient lifestyles, and lack of tradition of church service in their native cultures.   Local member-missionary efforts appear largely responsible for finding and baptizing Danes, which also exhibit higher retention.  The Church has responded to the challenging proselytism climate by focusing on the more receptive youth and young single adult populations through emphasis on seminary and institute attendance.  Young single adult outreach centers may secure long-term growth and sustainability of current Latter-day Saint populations by providing a social LDS outlet and opportunities for local single members to date and marry fellow Latter-day Saints.  High smoking and alcohol use rates challenge efforts for local members to abstain from these substances and create obstacles for full-time missionaries in teaching those who habitually smoke and drink.  Casual sexual relations are commonplace and oppose church teachings. 

National Outreach

41% of the national population resides in a city with an LDS congregation and all five administrative regions have multiple LDS congregations.  16 of the 32 cities with over 20,000 inhabitants have an LDS congregation.  The city with the smallest population with an LDS congregation is Ronne (13,900 inhabitants).  Several cities without LDS congregations are within ten kilometers of an LDS meetinghouse, which may increase the percentage of the population receiving limited mission outreach to 50%.  The percentage of Latter-day Saints and extent of mission outreach appears consistent throughout Denmark's five administrative regions as indicated by an average of one LDS congregation per 200,000 to 300,00 inhabitants for each region.

Several active and less-active Latter-day Saints reside in cities without a nearby congregation.  Coordinating finding and reactivation efforts with stake and mission leaders will be required to effectively extend outreach to these areas.  Church planting efforts appear to had come to some fruition in Svendborg in 2010.  Holding cottage meetings and forming dependent branches and groups in these locations offer opportunities to expand national outreach, generate a flexible approach to gage receptivity in lesser-reached cities and towns with a small nucleus of members, and may lead to a reversal of the 35-year trend of stagnant membership and congregational growth.  However a lack of priesthood holders in these areas prevent the establishment of independent congregations in the near term.  Emigration remains an enduring challenge for maintain currently levels of national outreach.  A Danish-speaking branch was organized in Salt Lake City in 1963[33] likely as a result of Danish members emigrated to the United States but has since been discontinued.  Member-missionary efforts among Africans provide opportunities for the Church to expand outreach in Africa.  For instance, the first Ugandan to join the Church in Uganda initially learned about the LDS Church through a pen pal in Denmark.[34]

Internet proselytism prospects are favorable.  In 1997, Denmark ranked among the top fifteen countries with the most visitors to the Church's website[35] and in 2003 Denmark was among the first eight nations to receive a country-specific LDS website.[36]  The Church continues to maintain the Denmark website at http://www.mormon.dk/, providing Danish-language LDS materials, a meetinghouse locator, local and international LDS news, and contact information for visits from full-time missionaries.  Use of the website by missionaries and members can increase national outreach, provide accurate information for those earnestly seeking to learning about the Church, and offer some outreach to unreached areas. 

Member Activity and Convert Retention

The influence of secularism on Danish society has reduced church attendance and member activity levels in some areas.  Reactivation efforts have experienced little success according to full-time missionary reports.  Quick-baptism techniques among non-Danes, especially African immigrants or students, has led to lower convert retention rates as many do not develop habitual church attendance and face logistical challenges traveling to church.  Full-time missionaries report that long travel times have reduced member activity rates in some congregations such as the Randers Branch.  Opening additional congregations in cities distant from currently established congregations may improve local member activity rates over time, but small numbers of faithful members reduce opportunities for fellowshipping at church and may create additional challenges in maintaining member activity rates. 

Ethnic Issues and Integration

Active membership in most congregations reflects Danish demographics for the general population.  High receptivity among immigrant groups has resulted in increasing numbers of non-native European members, albeit many demonstrate lower activity rates.  Mounting anti-immigrant sentiment in recent years may create challenges for some native members to accommodate the needs of immigrant converts.  Full-time missionaries report that language barriers and long distances to travel to church are the primary obstacles for better integration of immigrant converts.

Language Issues

Widespread use of Danish as a first or second language simplifies mission outreach efforts and facilitates the integration of differing ethnic groups into the same congregations.  The creation of an international congregation to accommodate non-Danish speakers in the Copenhagen area may improve member activity and convert retention rates among non-Danes and facilitate greater testimony building, gospel instruction, and sustainability of immigrant Latter-day Saint populations.  Greenlandic and Faroese, which together have approximately 100,000 speakers worldwide, remain without LDS materials.

Missionary Service

In 1972, there were 18 native Danish missionaries serving in Norway, Germany, England, and Denmark.[37]  Danish members frequently served full-time missions in the late 2000s, but not in enough numbers to staff the missionary complement of the Denmark Copenhagen Mission.  Increasing seminary and institute attendance in recent years may generate more local members who are willing and capable of full-time missionary service, thereby reducing reliance on foreign missionaries to staff local missionary needs. 

Leadership

Denmark possesses a small, stable, and well-trained body of local priesthood leadership capable of staffing the administrative needs of two stakes and a temple.  All congregations appear to be administered by local leaders.  A shortage of prospective leaders in some unreached or lesser-reached cities may prevent the organization of additional congregations.  Danish members have served in several international church leadership positions.  In 1966, Don L. Christensen was called as a regional representative.[38]  In 1995, Knud B. Andersen from Fredericia[39] was called to preside over the Denmark Copenhagen Mission.[40]  In 2010, Jens Hjarup Andersen from Allerod was called to preside over the Denmark Copenhagen Mission[41] and Hans Hjort Rode Nielsen from Soborg was called as the Copenhagen Denmark Temple president.[42]

Temple

Denmark is assigned to the Copenhagen Denmark Temple district.  Announced in 1999 and dedicated in 2004, the temple is one of three temples worldwide that was renovated from a preexisting church meetinghouse.  The Copenhagen Denmark temple had one of the smallest temple districts in the world in 2011 as the temple serviced three stakes and mission branches in Greenland and Iceland.  Notwithstanding the small size of the temple district and the temple operating well below capacity, the few local members in the district utilize the temple well.  In 2011, endowment sessions occurred Tuesdays through Saturdays with two sessions on Wednesdays, three of Thursdays, six on Fridays, and three of Saturdays.  Additional sessions are also available by appointment. 

Comparative Growth

The percentage of Latter-day Saints in the general population and member activity rates in Denmark are representative of Scandinavia and higher than in most of Europe.  The average number of members per congregation is less than 200 for Denmark, Finland, and Norway and among the lowest in the world, indicating a high degree of self-sustainability for local congregation despite few members.  Denmark has one of the highest percentages of members enrolled in seminary or institute in Europe at eight percent, a percentage comparable to Norway and Finland.  The size of Latter-day Saint membership and membership growth trends are comparable to Norway and Finland.  The Copenhagen Denmark, Stockholm Sweden, and Helsinki Finland Temples are among the most utilized temples in the world among temples with four of fewer stakes within a temple district.

Missionary-minded Christian churches report some of the poorest church growth trends worldwide.  Seventh Day Adventists and Jehovah's Witnesses gain few new converts.  Total church membership and the number of congregations declined for Adventists during the 2000s.  Jehovah's Witnesses experience slow membership growth, but widespread national outreach with over 200 congregations. 

Future Prospects

Stagnant membership and congregational growth have persisted for several decades and will likely continue for the foreseeable future due to low rates of receptivity, small numbers of convert baptisms, moderate rates of convert retention, and high rates of member activity among youth.  The greatest challenge for the Church in the coming decade will be maintain the current level of national outreach by avoiding congregation consolidations and augmenting the number of local members that serve full-time missions.  Continuing mission outreach directed toward youth and young adults and focusing on member-missionary work appear the most favorable options for proselytism at present.

President Hinckley stated the following in 1996: "There are now 9 million or more of us. There ought to be a lot more in Denmark. Well, that's up to you - I believe you could double the membership of the Church here in five years. I really believe that. If you would work and pray and pray and work and concentrate on doing it at every opportunity and go forward in faith and without fear."[43]


[1]  "Background Note: Denmark," Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs, 3 June 2010.  http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3167.htm

[2]  "Keys of the kingdom," LDS Church News, 20 January 2007.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/50047/Keys-of-the-kingdom.html

[3]  "Background Note: Denmark," Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs, 3 June 2010.  http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3167.htm

[4]  "Denmark," International Religious Freedom Report 2010, 17 November 2010.  http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2010/148929.htm

[5]  "Denmark," International Religious Freedom Report 2010, 17 November 2010.  http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2010/148929.htm

[6]  "Highlights of the Church in Scandinavia", Ensign, July 1974, 48

[7]  "Six more temples announced; total now 108," LDS Church News, 27 March 1999.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/35432/Six-more-temples-announced-total-now-108.html

[8]  Lloyd, Scott.  "European continent realigned into three new areas," LDS Church News, 16 September 2000.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/38475/European-continent---realigned-into-three-new-areas.html

[9]  Lloyd, R. Scott.  "Sea trekkers make connections in Denmark," LDS Church News, 11 August 2001.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/40319/Sea-trekkers-make-connections-in-Denmark.html

[10]  Anderson, Niels-Ove.  "Danish ties renewed," LDS Church News, 7 May 2005.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/47268/Danish-ties-renewed.html

[11]  "Highlights of the Church in Scandinavia", Ensign, July 1974, 48

[12]  "Large migration of Danish converts is subject of exhibit," LDS Church News, 10 February 2001.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/39309/Large-migration-of-Danish-converts-is-subject-of-exhibit.html

[13]  "The Saints in Scandinavia", Ensign, July 1974, 28

[14]  Lloyd, R. Scott.  "Common heritage," LDS Church News, 11 August 2001.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/40327/Common-heritage.html

[15]  "Mormon Church in Denmark: Celebrating 160 years," LDS Church News, 10 July 2010.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/59579/Mormon-Church-in-Denmark-Celebrating-160-years.html

[16]  "Highlights of the Church in Scandinavia", Ensign, July 1974, 48

[17]  "Danish chapel will become new temple," LDS Church News, 29 May 1999.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/35833/Danish-chapel-will-become-new-temple.html

[18]  Stevenson, Ford.  "Church marks 150 years in Scandinavia," LDS Church News, 15 July 2000.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/38129/Church-marks-150-years-in-Scandinavia.html

[19]  Avant, Gerry.  "Influence of Scandinavian saints," LDS Church News, 29 May 2004.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/45634/Influence-of-Scandinavian-saints.html

[20]  "Facts about the Copenhagen Denmark Temple," LDS Church News, 29 May 2004.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/45631/Facts-about-the-Copenhagen-Denmark-Temple.html

[21]  "From around the world," LDS Church News, 13 August 1988.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/17740/From-around-the-world.html

[22]  Gram, Carsten.  "Copenhagen: Center for Scandinavian LDS emigration in 1800s experiences new growth in the twentieth century," LDS Church News, 18 September 1993.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/23655/Copenhagen--Center-for-Scandinavian-LDS-emigration-in-1800s--experiences-new-growth-in-the-twentieth-century.html

[23]  "From around the world," LDS Church News, 13 February 1988.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/18325/From-around-the-world.html

[24]  "From around the world," LDS Church News, 13 August 1988.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/17740/From-around-the-world.html

[25]  Gram, Carsten.  "Copenhagen: Center for Scandinavian LDS emigration in 1800s experiences new growth in the twentieth century," LDS Church News, 18 September 1993.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/23655/Copenhagen--Center-for-Scandinavian-LDS-emigration-in-1800s--experiences-new-growth-in-the-twentieth-century.html

[26]  "Choir in famous cathedral," LDS Church News, 9 June 2007.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/50673/Choir-in-famous-cathedral.html

[27]  Ramstack, Tom.  "Danish walk-a-thon," LDS Church News, 8 September 2007.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/51033/Danish-walk-a-thon.html

[28]  "Highlights of the Church in Scandinavia", Ensign, July 1974, 48

[29]  "The Saints in Scandinavia", Ensign, July 1974, 28

[30]  Ramstack, Tom.  "Danish walk-a-thon," LDS Church News, 8 September 2007.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/51033/Danish-walk-a-thon.html

[31]   "Mormon Church in Denmark: Celebrating 160 years," LDS Church News, 10 July 2010.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/59579/Mormon-Church-in-Denmark-Celebrating-160-years.html

[32]  "Denmark," International Religious Freedom Report 2010, 17 November 2010.  http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2010/148929.htm

[33]  "Highlights of the Church in Scandinavia", Ensign, July 1974, 48

[34]  "From a tiny start, Church begins to grow in African nation of Uganda," LDS Church News, 30 March 1991.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/20973/From-a-tiny-start-Church-begins-to-grow-in-African-nation-of-Uganda.html

[35]  "Internet users find LDS web site," LDS Church News, 1 March 1997.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/29302/Internet-users-find-LDS-web-site.html

[36]  "Church establishing country-specific Web sites," LDS Church News, 15 November 2003.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/44674/Church-establishing-country-specific-Web-sites.html

[37]  "The Saints in Scandinavia", Ensign, July 1974, 28

[38]  "Highlights of the Church in Scandinavia", Ensign, July 1974, 48

[39]  "New mission presidents," LDS Church News, 4 March 1995.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/26636/New-mission-presidents.html

[40]  "New mission presidents assigned," LDS Church News, 18 March 1995.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/26630/New-mission-presidents-assigned.html

[41]  "New mission presidents," LDS Church News, 13 February 2010.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/58779/New-mission-presidents.html

[42]  "New temple presidents," LDS Church News, 19 June 2010.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/59489/New-temple-presidents.html

[43]  Hart, John L.  "Prophet visits 5 European countries, asks saints to keep commandments," LDS Church News, 22 June 1996.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/27991/Prophet-visits-5-European-countries-asks-saints-to-keep-commandments.html