Reaching the Nations

Sweden

By David Stewart and Matt Martinich

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Geography

Area: 450,295 square km.  Located in Scandinavia north of Denmark, Sweden borders Finland, Norway, and the Baltic Sea.  Two major islands in the Baltic Sea are under Swedish administration: Gotland and Oland.  Northern Sweden reaches past the Arctic Circle where subarctic climatic conditions occur.  Temperate climate occurs in most areas, characterized by cloudy, cold winters and mild summers.  Plains constitute most the terrain with the exception of some mountains in the west.  Ice floes are a natural hazard.  Environmental issues include acid rain and sea pollution.  Sweden is divided into 21 administrative counties.

Peoples

Swedes: 82%

Finns: 5%

other: 13%

Swedes populate all areas of Sweden.  Finns are concentrated in central areas.  Other ethnic groups consist primarily of immigrants from Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East.

Population: 9,103,788 (July 2012)       

Annual Growth Rate: 0.168% (2012)    

Fertility Rate: 1.67 children born per woman (2012)   

Life Expectancy: 78.86 male, 83.63 female (2012)

Languages: Swedish (90%), Finnish (3%), Serbian (1%), other (6%).  Swedish is the official language and the only language with over one million speakers (8.1 million). 

Literacy: 99% (2003)

History

The Swedes were known as merchant seafarers in the seventh and eighth centuries and were eventually grouped with other Nordic peoples as Vikings who raided and plundered regions as far as the Caspian Sea.  Many religious sites important to Norse mythology and of significant religious importance such as Uppsala are located in Sweden.  Christianity spread to Sweden around 1000 AD and supplanted Norse mythology and indigenous religions.  Sweden became a Christian kingdom that included Finland by the eleventh and twelfth centuries.  In 1397, all Nordic lands were unified as the Kalmar Union under Queen Margaret of Denmark but the union dissolved in the fourteenth century as a result of ethnic rivalries.  Gustav Vasa facilitated the establishment of a Swedish state in the sixteenth century and separated ties with the Catholic Church, thereby joining the Reformation.  Sweden won wars between Poland, Denmark, and Russia in the seventeenth century, participated in the Thirty Years War, and emerged as a European power.  By the mid-seventeenth century, Sweden controlled Finland, the St. Petersburg area of modern-day Russia, some areas of northern Germany, Estonia, and Latvia.  The Napoleonic wars weakened Sweden's power and resulted in the loss of Finland to Russia in 1809.  Sweden and Norway maintained a dual monarchy from the early nineteenth century until 1905 when Norway became independent.  As many as one million Swedes immigrated to the United States between 1850 and 1890 due to changing social and economic conditions brought upon by the industrial revolution.  Sweden maintained neutrality during both world wars and experienced strong economic growth and development during the twentieth century.  Sweden joined the European Union in 1995.  Today Sweden is known for its resilient economy and extensive social welfare system.[2]  

Culture 

The Christianization of Sweden in the Middle Ages marked a significant cultural turning point for the Swedish population as traditional Norse and Viking mythology and religion were supplanted by Catholicism.  The Reformation brought the Lutheran Church to Sweden, which remains the primary religious influence on culture today.  During the twentieth century, liberalism and secularism took hold as religious activity rates declined, atheism spread, and positive social attitudes evolved towards homosexuality and cohabitation.  Sweden has generated many talented authors, artists, musicians, actors, movie directors, and athletes during the past two centuries that have been regionally and internationally acclaimed.  Traditional cuisine is comparable to other Scandinavian countries and relies heavily upon fish, meat, and potatoes.[3]  Alcohol and cigarette consumption rates rank slightly below  world average.

Economy

GDP per capita: $40,600 (2011) [84.4% of US]

Human Development Index: 0.904

Corruption Index: 9.3 (2011)

With one of the world's most advanced, stable economies, Sweden has prospered for decades as a result of a strong market-oriented government policies, neutrality and peace during both world wars, a skilled labor force, and medium-sized population.  The global financial crisis drove the economy into recession primarily due to declining international demand for Swedish products.  Natural resources include iron ore, metallic minerals, precious minerals, lumber, and hydropower.  Services employ 71% of the labor force and generate 73% of the GDP whereas industry employs 28% of the labor force and generates 25% of the GDP.  Iron and steel, precision equipment, wood, paper, food processing, and motor vehicles are major industries.  Agriculture constitutes less than two percent of the GDP and labor force.  Common agricultural products include barley, wheat, sugar beets, meat, and milk.  Primary trade partners include Germany, Norway, and Denmark.  Sweden has one of the lowest rates of perceived corruption worldwide and ranks among the five least corruption countries according to Transparency International.[4]

Faiths

Christian: 83%

Muslim: 5%

other: 12%

Christians

Denominations  Members  Congregations

Church of Sweden  6,664,000

Catholic  181,481

Jehovah's Witnesses  22,428  323

Latter-day Saints  9,344  40

Seventh-Day Adventists  2,766  37

Religion

Religion is highly correlated to ethnicity.  The Church of Sweden (Lutheran) reports that 71.3% of Swedish citizens are members, but has experienced declining membership in recent years.  In 2009, nearly 73,400 members left the Church primarily to evade membership tax (usually less than one percent of income).  Disaffiliated members may continue to attend services.  Finns are predominantly Lutheran.  Other Protestant denominations account for 4.4% of the population.  Pentecostals, Jehovah's Witnesses, Latter-day Saints, and the Missionary Church account for less than five percent of the population.  Orthodox Christians are immigrants from East and Southeast Europe and the Middle East.  Christian churches are overall poorly attended with the exception of major church festivals and religious ceremonies, such as weddings and funerals.  Muslims constitute approximately five percent of the population and consist primarily of immigrants from Southeast Europe, the Middle East, and Africa.  There are approximately 20,000 Jews, half of which are estimated to be practicing.[5]  

Religious Freedom

Persecution Index:

The constitution protects religious freedom which is upheld by the government.  Separation of church and state occurred in 2000.  Traditional Christian holidays are recognized as national holidays.  Recognized religious groups may receive government financial support, but registration with the government is not required.  Government aid was disseminated among 22 religious groups in the late 2000s.  Religious education is required in public schools and studies all major religious traditions.  Sweden has a special hate crime police unit and laws banning hateful speech relating to religious discrimination.  There have been some reports of societal abuse of religious freedom targeting Jews and Muslims.[6] 

Largest Cities

Urban: 85%

Stockholm, Göteborg, Malmö, Uppsala, Linköping, Västerås, Örebro, Norrköping, Helsingborg, Jönköping, Umeå, Lund, Borås.

All 13 cities with over 100,000 inhabitants have an LDS congregation.  32% of the national population resides in the 13 largest cities.

LDS History

Organized in 1850, the Scandinavian Mission administered Denmark, Sweden, and Norway.  The first known Latter-day Saint Swedes joined the Church in Denmark in 1850.  The first Swedish members to emigrate in Utah left Scandinavia in 1852.  In 1853, the first LDS branches in Sweden were organized in Skåne County.  Police oppression of the Church occurred in the mid-1850s and softened in 1855.  The Scandinavian Mission baptized 623 converts in 1857.  25% of the 9,854 Latter-day Saint converts baptized in the Scandinavian Mission during the 1850s emigrated to Utah and half of the 12,887 converts baptized in the 1860s also emigrated.  In 1905, the Church organized the Swedish Mission which also administered Finland and Russia.  The Church published a Swedish hymnbook in 1910 with 209 hymns.  Intense persecution of the LDS Church began in 1911 as the government encouraged counter-proselytism, the deportation of LDS leaders, and strong action against local members engaged in proselytism.  Missionaries did not proselyte again until 1915 when the government improved its position toward the Church.  In 1916, there were less than 20 full-time missionaries in Sweden that distributed 169,000 tracts, visited 190,000 homes, held 10,000 missionary lessons, and baptized 83 converts.  Swedish authorities refused visas for LDS missionaries from 1920 until 1924.  20,474 copies of the Swedish translation of the Book of Mormon were sold in 1965.[7]  President Thomas S. Monson dedicated Sweden for missionary work in 1977 after learning that the whole of Scandinavia was dedicated for missionary work in Denmark in 1850.[8]  Seminary and institute began in the mid-1970s.  Sweden issued a special postage stamp in celebration of the dedication of the Stockholm Sweden Temple in 1985.[9]

In 1991, Sweden pertained to the Europe North Area.[10]  President Thomas S. Monson, who has Swedish ancestry, visited Sweden in 1995 to create a stake.  During his visit, President Monson met with the king and queen of Sweden.[11]  In 2000, the Europe Central Area began administering Sweden.[12]  In 2003, the Church participated in a government-held meeting supporting traditional family values.[13]  That same year, Latter-day Saint Thea Halleberg won the Victor Ornberg prize for her contribution to collecting and publishing demographic information regarding Lapp and settler families in Sorsele.[14]  In 2005, LDS apostle Elder L. Tom Perry spoke live on Radio Jnkping concerning LDS Church administration, the procedure for calling additional leaders, and relief efforts for the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami.  The broadcast reached some 300,000 listeners.[15]  In 2006, the Göteborg Sweden Stake center was damaged by fire.[16]

Membership Growth

LDS Membership: 9,344 (2011)

There were 106 Swedes in the Scandinavian Mission in 1853, increasing to 726 in 1857.[17]  19,417 Swedes joined the Church between 1850 and 1930; 8,545 of which emigrated to Utah.[18]  In 1975, there were approximately 5,500 Latter-day Saints in Sweden.  Membership reached 6,000 in the late 1970s, 7,000 in the mid-1980s, and 8,000 in 1991.  By year-end 2000, there were 8,595 members.

Membership grew slowly in the 2000s, totaling 8,678 in 2002, 8,819 in 2004, 8,797 in 2006, 8,966 in 2008.  Decline in LDS membership occurred in 2006.  Annual membership growth rates ranged from -0.7% to 1.5% during the 2000s.  LDS membership generally increases by 50 to 100 members annually. In 2009, one in 998 was LDS.

Congregational Growth

Wards: 24 Branches: 16 (April 2012)

In 1860, there were 36 branches and five districts in the Scandinavia Mission.  There were seven districts in the Swedish Mission by 1934.[19]  The Church created the first stake in 1975 in Stockholm.  Additional stakes were organized in Göteborg (1977), Stockholm South (1995), and Malmö (1996).  In addition to the four stakes operating in early 2011, there was one district functioning in Umeå (1970) for branches in northern Sweden.

39 congregations operated in 1990, including 12 wards.  The number of congregations increased during the 1990s to 48 in 1993 and to a high of 52 in 1995 (14 wards, 38 branches).  Starting in the late 1990s, congregation consolidations decreased the number of LDS units to 51 in 2000, 48 in 2001, 45 in 2003, 44 in 2005, 42 in 2007, 41 in 2008, and 40 in 2010.  The number of wards dropped by one from 25 in 2000 to 24 in 2001.  Ten branches were consolidated in the 2000s.  Units discontinued after 2001 include the Avesta, Hässleholm, Kalmar, Märsta, Nynäshamn, Östersund, Sollefteå, Stenungsund Branches, and the Enskede YSA, Limnhamn, and Tyresö Wards.  Two new congregations were created in the 2000s, the Hägersten and Västerhaninge 2nd Wards.

Activity and Retention

Sweden possesses modest rates of LDS member activity.  Large meetings and conferences have been moderately attended by active Latter-day Saints.  4,000 members from throughout Scandinavia attended an area conference held in Stockholm in 1974.[20]  1,300 Swedish Latter-day Saints attended a special meeting with President Monson in 1995 following the creation of the Stockholm Sweden South Stake.[21]  A local newspaper reported that there were 5,000 registered Latter-day Saints in 2005.[22]  331 were enrolled in seminary and institute during the 2008-2009 school year. 

The average number of members per congregation increased from 169 in 2000 to 222 in 2009.  Member activity varies widely by congregation.  The Linkoping Branch in the Stockholm Sweden South Stake had 24 active members and approximately 170 less active or inactive members in late 2010.  Approximately 30 members were active in the Jakobsberg Ward, located in northwestern Stockholm, in early 2010.  Most branches appear to have 50 or fewer active members whereas most wards have between 50 and 100 active members.  Nationwide active membership is estimated at 2,600, or 30% of total membership.

Finding

In recent years, Swedish LDS leaders have struggled to tailor missionary approaches to Swedes.  In 2003, the Jonkoping Ward responded to poor receptivity to the Church and misinformation about Latter-day Saints by emphasizing to local members the need to invite others to learn about or attend the Church and sacrifice their time and effort into member-missionary work activity.  Methods used by the ward to find receptive individuals and proselyte included holding open houses, firesides, concerts, and service projects; advertizing in local news papers; sending media press releases; and distributing flyers.[23]  In 2010, full-time missionaries taught English and Swedish language classes in the Stockholm area for service and to find investigators.

Language Materials

Languages with LDS Scripture: Swedish, Finnish, Serbian, Greek, Danish, Farsi, Spanish, Turkish, Arabic, Polish

All LDS scriptures and a wide selection of church materials are translated into Swedish, Finnish, Greek, Danish, Spanish, Arabic, and Polish.  Only the Book of Mormon is available in Serbian and Turkish.  The Church has translated several unit, temple, priesthood, Relief Society, Sunday School, young women, primary, missionary, church proclamations, and family history materials in Serbian and Turkish.  Book of Mormon selections and a limited number of church materials are translated into Farsi.  Somali language materials are limited to The Testimony of the Prophet Joseph Smith and Gospel Principles

Meetinghouses

The first LDS meetinghouse completed in the twentieth century was in Gubbangen in 1961.[24]  There were approximately 37 LDS meetinghouses in early 2011, nearly all of which were built by the Church. 

Humanitarian and Development Work

In 1940, Swedish Latter-day Saints sent food and clothing to members in German-occupied Scandinavian countries.[25]  Economic prosperity and high standards of living have resulted in little need for LDS-sponsored humanitarian and development work.

 

Opportunities, Challenges and Prospects

Religious Freedom

For the past several decades, the LDS Church has benefited from full religious freedom in Sweden to proselyte, assemble, and worship.  Foreign missionaries  readily obtain visas and report no major challenges with government or civic authorities. 

Cultural Issues

Secularism, liberal social views clashing with scriptural morality, and nominal Christianity each have created major obstacles for Latter-day Saints to address regarding the finding, teaching, and retention of new converts.  These social issues have contributed to mediocre member activity levels as those without strong testimonies and those who are not socially well-integrated to LDS congregations often become inactive.  Those who engaged in extramarital relationships or cohabitation must marry or end these relations prior to baptism.  The Church has responded to the challenging this environment by emphasizing the role local members play in missionary work by finding, teaching, and fellowshipping investigators, new converts, and less-active members.  Many immigrant groups have been more receptive than Swedes to LDS mission outreach, but present differing challenges such as strong ethno-religious ties and difficulty assimilating into some Swede-majority LDS congregations.  High taxes and cost of living have been economic challenges for members to live Church teachings.  Transportation expenses can dissuade some members from attending meetings regularly.[26]  Alcohol and cigarette consumption rates are lower than most Western European countries, favoring proselytism.

National Outreach

Approximately 76% of the national population resides in cities with an LDS presence or in cities within or nearby metropolitan areas with an LDS congregation.  19 of Sweden's 21 administrative counties have an LDS congregation.  Ten counties have only one LDS congregation.  The two unreached counties - Jämtlands and Kalmar - received mission outreach at the beginning of the 2000s and today their inhabitants account for four percent of the Swedish population.  Of the 107 cities with populations between 20,000 and 100,000 inhabitants, 23 have their own LDS congregations and constitute 33% of the national population whereas 17 are within metropolitan areas of the largest Swedish cities and constitute 9% of the national population.  The 17 cities within or nearby metropolitan areas receive some mission outreach from nearby suburbs with LDS congregations.  Reaching cities between 20,000 and 100,000 inhabitants is of major importance towards performing LDS mission outreach in Sweden as half the national population resides in these cities.  24% of the population resides in unreached cities over 20,000 inhabitants.  Three percent of the Swedish population lives in cities that once had LDS congregations.  With 20,400 inhabitants, Sollefteå was the least populated city to have ever had an LDS congregation in recent years.  In early 2011, the least populated city with an LDS presence was Katrineholm (32,300 inhabitants).

The Church has yet to reverse the trend of congregation consolidations that commenced in the late 1990s in order to improve national outreach potential.  Active and inactive members likely reside in most of the unreached cities with over 20,000 inhabitants and provide favorable opportunities to establish new mission outreach centers in these locations.  Holding cottage meetings and organizing dependent branches or groups in these areas provides flexibility in performing mission outreach in lesser-reached and unreached areas by the Church.  Creating non-Swedish-speaking congregations may facilitate greater outreach among immigrant groups in the largest cities.  Additional mission outreach centers are also needed for native Swedes in the most populous cities as many reside far from meetinghouses.  Sweden's third largest city of Malmö had only one LDS congregation in early 2011.

Sweden had the sixth most visitors to the Church's website in 1997[27] and was among the first eight countries to have a country-specific LDS website.[28]  The Church continues to maintain a website for Sweden in Swedish at http://www.jesukristikyrka.se/.  The Internet site provides information on LDS beliefs, meetinghouse locations, links to other church websites, local news, and missionary visits.  High rates of Internet usage among the Swedish population and referring interested individuals to the site by local members and missionaries may increase national outreach over time. 

Member Activity and Convert Retention

Member activity and convert retention rates have been mediocre, but the average number of members per congregation remains low indicating that the number of active members in most congregations is small.  Full-time missionaries regularly teach and find inactive members, but  report little success in sustainable reactivation.  Many less-active members are chronically less-active and never develop regular church attendance habits.  Small numbers of active members continue to threaten the closing of additional congregations.  Cultural attitudes towards religion and reliance on full-time missionaries in smaller congregations appear the primary contributors to low member activity rates in some areas.  Young single adult outreach centered on institute and church attendance appear the most favorable means of addressing current inactivity issues.

Ethnic Issues and Integration

There have been few ethnic integration issues reported by full-time missionaries.  Language barriers appear the greater challenge for immigrant investigators and converts to attend LDS congregations. 

Language Issues

Nearly the entire population has LDS materials available in their native language.  Languages without current translations of LDS materials do not appear likely to have materials translated in the near future.  Non-Swedish-speaking congregations may be organized in the coming years to meet the needs of immigrant groups, such as Serbs, Turks, Africans, and Iranians, although ongoing assimilation of such groups into Swedish society may decrease the need for language-specific outreach.

Missionary Service

The full-time missionary force remains staffed primary by foreign missionaries.  There were 165 missionaries serving in Sweden in 1950.[29]  In 1995, there were 68 full-time missionaries assigned to Sweden.[30]  Local members regularly serve members, but the percentage of youth and young adults that serve missions is low.  Swedish LDS missionaries have served throughout Europe, North America, and in some countries in Asia.  Greater emphasis on missionary preparation may increase the number of members who serve missions and reduce reliance on international missionary manpower to staff the Sweden Stockholm Mission.

Leadership

Sweden has well-trained LDS leadership that supports four stakes, one district, and a temple despite fewer than 10,000 members.  With only a couple exceptions, all LDS congregations appear to have local leaders.  The number of active Priesthood holders remains limited and has likely contributed to the consolidation of congregations in recent years.  Swedish members have served as mission presidents, regional representatives, area authorities, and general authorities.  In 1993, Arne L. Hedberg from Orebro was called as the Sweden Stockholm Mission president[31] and R. Ingvar Olsson from Göteborg was called as a regional representative.[32]  In 1994, Bo G. Wennerlund from Stockholm was called as the Stockholm Sweden Temple president.[33]  In 2000, Hans H. Mattsson from Haninge was called as an Area Authority Seventy[34] and Arne Lennart Hedberg from Orebro was called as the Stockholm Sweden Temple president.[35]  In 2006, Bengt Oskar Hoglund from Vasterhaninge was called as the Stockholm Sweden Temple president.[36]  In 2007, Hans Gunnar Gustav Ljungh from Trollhattan was called as the Copenhagen Denmark Temple president.[37]  In 2010, R. Ingvar Olsson from Haninge was called as an Area Seventy[38] and Per G. Malm from Jonkoping was called to the Second Quorum of the Seventy.[39]

Temple

Announced in 1981 and completed in 1985, the Stockholm Sweden Temple administers to members living in central and northern Sweden whereas the Denmark Copenhagen Temple (announced in 1999 and dedicated in 2004) serves members in southern Sweden.  Sweden pertained to the Bern Switzerland Temple district prior to the completion of the temple in Sweden.  The Stockholm Sweden Temple district performed between 42,000 and 50,000 endowments a year in the mid-1990s.  A guest house operates next to the temple with 120 beds to accommodate members traveling long distances.[40]  Russia and the Baltic states were part of the temple district until the completion of the Helsinki Finland Temple in 2006 and today Latvian members continue to attend the Stockholm Sweden Temple.

Comparative Growth

Sweden was the only Scandinavian country to not experience stagnant membership growth during the 2000s.  However, member activity and convert retention rates appeared the lowest in the region as other nations with half as many Latter-day Saints as Sweden (Denmark, Norway, and Finland) had the same number of members or more enrolled in seminary and institute as Sweden in the late 2000s.  Priesthood leadership appears as developed as Denmark and Finland due to the operation of multiple stakes with fewer than 10,000 members.  Sweden was the only Scandinavian country to experience a significant decline in the number of LDS congregations operating during the 2000s as the number of congregations declined by only one in Norway and Finland and by two in Denmark during this period.  Sweden ranked among the ten countries that experienced the greatest percentage decline in the number of LDS congregations during the 2000s (-20%). 

Missionary-minded Christian groups report membership decline or stagnant to slow growth.  Seventh Day Adventists entered Sweden in 1901 and have experienced stagnant membership growth for many years.  Adventist membership declined from 3,046 in 1998 to 2,812 in 2009 and the number of churches declined by seven from 46 to 39.  Adventists generally baptize 50 or fewer converts annually.[41]  Jehovah's Witnesses and Pentecostals have been the most successful Christian groups in recent years.  Jehovah's Witnesses reported 22,418 active members meeting in 325 congregations in 2009.  Witnesses baptized over 300 convert in 2009.  Slow but steady growth among Witnesses and evangelicals indicates that church growth is possible in Sweden despite challenging cultural and social conditions.

Future Prospects

The outlook for future LDS Church growth in Sweden is poor over the medium-term due to the continuing trend of congregation consolidations, low member activity rates, few members serving full-time missions, and failure of missions to formulate missionary approaches tailored to the needs and circumstances of the highly secular modern Swedish society.  Greater growth will ultimately hinge on the faithfulness of local members in their member-missionary efforts.  President Monson stated in 1995: "As I offered the prayer of rededication of Sweden, I emphasized that the future of the Church in Sweden will be maximized when the membership of the Church and the missionaries work hand in hand in meeting and teaching the gospel to others."[42]  Emigration remains a challenge for the Church to maintain self-sustainability.  President Hinckley stated the following in May 2004 in Denmark: "Thousands upon thousands of Latter-day Saints from Denmark and Sweden left these lands to go to their Zion in the mountains of the West. Great is their posterity. . . . Now we don't emigrate any more. Stay here to build Zion in Denmark, Sweden and Iceland. Let us be strong. Let us be men and women of great faith. Let us hold on to the truth. Let us do what is right."[43]


[1]  "Background Note: Sweden," Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs, 8 November 2010.  http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2880.htm

[2]  "Background Note: Sweden," Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs, 8 November 2010.  http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2880.htm

[3]  "Sweden," Wikipedia.org, retrieved 5 January 2011.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweden

 

[5]  "Sweden," International Religious Freedom Report 2010, 17 November 2010.  http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2010/148988.htm

[6]  "Sweden," International Religious Freedom Report 2010, 17 November 2010.  http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2010/148988.htm

[7]  "Highlights of the Church in Scandinavia", Ensign, July 1974, 48

[8]  Avant, Gerry.  "Royal couple visits at Swedish temple with Pres. Monson," LDS Church News, 2 September 1995.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/26570/Royal-couple-visits-at-Swedish-temple-with-Pres-Monson.html

[9]  Kimball, Stanley B.  "'Mormon' stamps grow in number," LDS Church News, 15 January 1994.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/25089/Mormon-stamps-grow-in-number.html

[10]  "New areas created in Asia, Europe," LDS Church News, 7 September 1991.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/21578/New-areas-created-in-Asia-Europe.html

[11]  Avant, Gerry.  "'Favorite son, daughter' come 'home' to Sweden," LDS Church News, 26 August 1995.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/26289/Favorite-son-daughter-come-home-to-Sweden.html

[12]  Lloyd, Scott.  "European continent realigned into three new areas," LDS Church News, 16 September 2000.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/38475/European-continent---realigned-into-three-new-areas.html

[13]  Karlfeldt, Birgitta.  "Family values," LDS Church News, 15 March 2003.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/43358/Family-values.html

[14]  Karlfeldt, Birgitta.  "Lapp researcher wins Swedish prize," LDS Church News, 27 September 2003.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/44377/Lapp-researcher-wins-Swedish-prize.html

[15]  "Media interviews apostle," LDS Church News, 15 January 2005.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/46730/Media-interview-apostle.html

[16]  "Swedish stake center is damaged by fire," LDS Church News, 7 January 2006.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/48375/Swedish-stake-center-is-damaged-by-fire.html

[17]  "Highlights of the Church in Scandinavia", Ensign, July 1974, 48

[18]  Avant, Gerry.  "In Sweden, 'new day' brings bright future," LDS Church News, 21 October 1995.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/26266/In-Sweden-new-day-brings-bright-future.html

[19]  "Highlights of the Church in Scandinavia", Ensign, July 1974, 48

[20]  "This week in Church history," LDS Church News, 21 August 1999.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/36236/This-week-in-Church-history.html

[21]  Avant, Gerry.  "'Favorite son, daughter' come 'home' to Sweden," LDS Church News, 26 August 1995.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/26289/Favorite-son-daughter-come-home-to-Sweden.html

[22]  "Media interviews apostle," LDS Church News, 15 January 2005.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/46730/Media-interview-apostle.html

[23]  Hagman, Eivor.  "Sharing inspires interest," LDS Church News, 3 May 2003.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/43685/Sharing-inspires-interest.html

[24]  "Highlights of the Church in Scandinavia", Ensign, July 1974, 48

[25]  "Highlights of the Church in Scandinavia", Ensign, July 1974, 48

[26]  "The Saints in Scandinavia", Ensign, July 1974, 28

[27]  "Internet users find LDS web site," LDS Church News, 1 March 1997.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/29302/Internet-users-find-LDS-web-site.html

[28]  "Church establishing country-specific Web sites," LDS Church News, 15 November 2003.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/44674/Church-establishing-country-specific-Web-sites.html

[29]  "Highlights of the Church in Scandinavia", Ensign, July 1974, 48

[30]  Avant, Gerry.  "In Sweden, 'new day' brings bright future," LDS Church News, 21 October 1995.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/26266/In-Sweden-new-day-brings-bright-future.html

[31]  "New mission presidents," LDS Church News, 1 May 1993.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/23684/New-mission-presidents.html

[32]  "New regional representatives," LDS Church News, 15 May 1993.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/23069/New-regional-representatives.html

[33]  "New temple presidents," LDS Church News, 9 July 1994.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/24774/New-temple-presidents.html

[34]  "39 Area Authority Seventies called," LDS Church News, 8 April 2000.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/37529/39-Area-Authority-Seventies-called.html

[35]  "New temple presidents," LDS Church News, 30 September 2000.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/38537/New-temple-presidents.html

[36]  "New temple presidents," LDS Church News, 29 July 2006.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/49258/New-temple-presidents.html

[37]  "New temple presidents," LDS Church News, 4 August 2007.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/50907/New-temple-presidents.html

[38]  "New Area Seventies," LDS Church News, 24 April 2010.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/59238/New-Area-Seventies.html

[39]  "New General Authorities called, Primary General Presidency reorganized," LDS Church News, 3 April 2010.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/59143/New-General-Authorities-called-Primary-General-Presidency-reorganized.html

[40]  Avant, Gerry.  "Temple in Sweden is as spiritual magnet to grateful members," LDS Church News, 11 November 1995.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/26522/Temple-in-Sweden-is-as-spiritual-magnet-to-grateful-members.html

[41]  "Swedish Union Conference (1986-Present)," Adventiststatistics.org, retrieved 3 January 2011.  http://www.adventiststatistics.org/view_Summary.asp?FieldID=U10109

[42]  Avant, Gerry.  "Royal couple visits at Swedish temple with Pres. Monson," LDS Church News, 2 September 1995.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/26570/Royal-couple-visits-at-Swedish-temple-with-Pres-Monson.html

[43]  Avant, Gerry.  "Influence of Scandinavian saints," LDS Church News, 29 May 2004.  http://www.ldschurchnews.com/articles/45634/Influence-of-Scandinavian-saints.html