Reaching the Nations International Church Growth Almanac

Country reports on the LDS Church around the world from a landmark almanac. Includes detailed analysis of history, context, culture, needs, challenges and opportunities for church growth.


By David Stewart and Matt Martinich

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Area: 1,104,300 square km.  Landlocked in East Africa, Ethiopia borders Kenya, Sudan, Eritrea, and Somalia.  Ethiopian constitutes a portion of the Horn of Africa and terrain primarily consists of the Ethiopian Highlands, which includes some mountains as tall as 4,500 meters.  The Great Rift Valley runs through the center of the country and several large lakes occupy highland areas.  A tributary to the Nile River, the Blue Nile originates in the Ethiopia Highlands.  Climate varies from cool temperate conditions on high plateaus and mountains to hot tropical to semi-arid conditions in lower elevation areas.  Temperate climate occurs in most areas, creating ideal agricultural conditions.  Flora includes woodlands, forests, savannahs, and steppes.  Plains in far western Ethiopia bordering Sudan are covered with jungle and tropical rainforest.  Earthquakes, volcanoes, and drought are natural hazards.  Environmental concerns include overgrazing, deforestation, soil erosion, and desertification.  Ethiopia is administratively divided into nine states and two self-governing administrations. 

Population: 90,873,739 (July 2011)       

Annual Growth Rate: 3.194% (2011)    

Fertility Rate: 6.02 children born per woman (2011)   

Life Expectancy: 53.64 male, 58.81 female (2011)


Oromo: 32.1%

Amara: 30.1%

Tigraway: 6.2%

Somalie: 5.9%

Guragie: 4.3%

Sidama: 3.5%

Welaita: 2.4%

Other: 15.4%

Ethiopia's population consists of a rich diversity of ethnic groups.  The Oromo and Amhara live in the central areas of the country and constitute the largest percentages of the population at 32.1% and 30.1%, respectively.  Other notable ethnic groups include the Tigraway (6.2%), Somalie (5.9%), Guragie (4.3%), Sidama (3.5%), and Welaita (2.4%).  Other ethnicities constitute the remaining 15.4% of the population.

Languages: Amharic (32.7%), Oromo (31.6%), Tigrigna (6.1%), Somaligna (6%), Guaragigna (3.5%), Sidamigna (3.5%), Hadiyigna (1.7%), other (14.8%).  Amharic, English, and Tigrigna are national or official languages.  85 different languages are spoken.  Languages with over one million speakers include Amharic (17.1 million), Oromo (17.1 million), Somali (3.96 million), Tigrigna (3.22 million), Sidamo (2.9 million), Sebat Bet Gurage (2.32 million), Gamo-Gofa-Dawro (1.24 million), Wolaytta (1.23 million), and Silt'e (1 million).  Languages with between 500,000 and one million speakers include Afar, Hadiyya, Kafa, Gedeo, Kambaata, and Awngi.   

Literacy: 42.7% (2003)


One of the world's oldest civilizations, Ethiopia has been populated for millennia.  Various Old Testament prophets alluded to Ethiopia and the conversion of an Ethiopian eunuch by the Apostle Philip is recorded in the Book of Acts.  Ethiopia became the second nation after Armenia to adopt Christianity as a state religion in the fourth century AD.  Islam spread to the region shortly after its founding in the seventh century.  Ethiopia maintained its autonomy and sovereignty until the 1936 Italian invasion.  Italy withdrew by 1941 due to Ethiopian resistance groups and British intervention.  A communist one-party state overthrew the emperor of Ethiopia in the mid-1970s and maintained rule for 15 years.  During this time, Ethiopia temporarily lost the Ogaden region to Somali forces.  In the mid-1980s, a severe drought and famine due to low rainfall, political instability, and poor government management severely affected millions.  Eritrea gained independence in 1993 and a border war with Ethiopia occurred between 1998 and 2000.  Ethiopia has experienced rapid population growth over the past several decades and remains one of the poorest nations in the world.  Civil strife and border conflicts with Eritrea, Somalia, and Sudan continue to destabilize the region.


Agriculture, Islam, and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church heavily influence daily life and customs.  Common cuisine consists of injera - a spongy, flat bread - eaten with vegetables and meat.  Pork is not eaten as it is forbidden by the largest religious groups.  A wide array of music from Ethiopia's many ethnic groups abounds.  Ethiopia is also known internationally for athletes, particularly in running and soccer.   Cigarette and alcohol consumption rates are among the lowest worldwide.  Qat, an evergreen shrub grown in some areas of East Africa and the Middle East which has mild narcotic properties, is legal and commonly consumed.  Unlike other countries in the Horn of Africa, polygamy is illegal. 


GDP per capita: $1,000 (2010) [2.11% of US]

Human Development Index: 0.328

Corruption Index: 2.7

Widespread poverty and low literacy present obstacles to efforts to increase economic growth.  With the majority living in rural areas, 80% of the population engages in agriculture.  Past government mismanagement and poor agricultural techniques have resulted in low crop yields and high impact on the land.  Due to the loss of Eritrea and direct ocean access, Ethiopia faces limited trade and relies on the port in Djibouti and the de facto state of Somaliland for international trade.  The border war in the late 1990s with Eritrea drained much of Ethiopia's available wealth.  Despite a recent history plagued by war, severe droughts, and famines, Ethiopia has maintained high levels of economic growth for the past several years, with annual GDP growth rates increasing by over 8% since 2006.  Primary industries include food production, metal processing and cement.  Saudi Arabia, China, the United States, and Germany are primary trade partners. 

Corruption is perceived as widespread, particularly due to the highly centralized government.  Corrupt practices resulting from the privatization process have occurred, such as preferential treatment of state-own businesses to credit and land leases.  Poor law enforcement in many regions has led to human rights violations.[1]  Violence and instability from neighboring countries frequently spills over into Ethiopia.  Ethiopia is a transshipment point for qat, heroin, and cocaine. 


Christian: 60.8%

Muslim: 32.8%

Traditional religions: 4.6%

Other: 1.8%


Denominations  Members  Congregations

Ethiopian Orthodox  38,725,936

Evangelical/Pentecostal  16,722,563

Catholic  800,000

Seventh Day Adventists  169,875  817

Jehovah's Witnesses  8,672  164

Latter-day Saints  1,125  6


44% follow the Ethiopian Orthodox Church and 34% are Sunni Muslim.  Adherents of Evangelical and Pentecostal churches constitute 19% of the population and have grown significantly over the past half century.  Christians form the majority, 83% of which are Ethiopian Orthodox.  The Oromo are about half Muslim and half Christian, with half of the Oromo Christians adhering to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.  The majority of Amhara adhere to Christianity, particularly the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.  Smaller ethnic groups tend to either belong to various Christian denominations or Islam.  Ethiopia's once substantial Jewish population has almost entirely immigrated to Israel.[2] 

Religious Freedom

Persecution Index: 44th

The constitution protects religious freedom which is usually upheld by law and government policies.  Abuse of religious freedom is not tolerated and it is a crime to provoke religious groups against each other.  Christian and Muslim holidays are both observed.  Religious groups must register with the government to have legal standing and open a bank account.  Religious groups must reregister every three years.  Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) face many restrictions, including a limit on foreign funding.  Religious groups which wish to perform development work must register these activities under an NGO.  Government land is granted to religious groups without cost but can be seized at any time.  Orthodox Christians and Muslims generally respect each other's beliefs and practices and coexist peacefully.  There have been some reports of religious violence between Christians and Muslims.[3] 

Largest Cities

Urban: 17%

Addis Ababa, Nazret, Dire Dawa, Mekele, Gonder, Bahir Dar, Awasa, Jima, Dese, Jijiga, Shashemene, Debre Zeit.

Cities listed in bold have no LDS congregation

Four of the 12 cities with over 100,000 inhabitants have LDS congregation.  6% of the national population lives in the 12 largest cities.  

LDS History

The first LDS members to live in Ethiopia were foreigners working in the embassies in Addis Ababa.  The Church conducted numerous small and large scale humanitarian projects in Ethiopia before and after a formal Church presence was established.  During the mid-1980s, Ethiopia suffered from severe drought and famine.  The First Presidency requested members of the Church in Canada and the United States to hold a special fast for those suffering in Ethiopia, Africa and around the world.  11 million dollars was donated for those affected by the drought.[4] 

Ethiopia was included in the Kenya Nairobi Mission in 1991.  The first official church meeting in Ethiopia was held in August 1992.  The first missionaries arrived in February of 1993.  The Church was legally registered with the government in September of that year.  Seminary began in 1995.  In 1998, Ethiopia was assigned to the Africa Southeast Area.  The Book of Mormon was translated into Amharic in 2000.  Ethiopia was dedicated for missionary work in November 2004 by Elder Russell M. Nelson.[5] 

Ethiopia was assigned to the newly-created Uganda Kampala Mission in 2005.  Ethiopia and Uganda were included in the newly-formed mission whereas the Kenya Nairobi Mission retained responsibility for Kenya and Tanzania.  The new mission was created so that more attention could be focused on the four nations originally covered by the Kenya Nairobi Mission, which had a combined population of around 165 million people.  The new mission also reduced travel demands for mission leaders.[6] 

Membership Growth

LDS Membership: 1,125 (2010)

There were 197 members in 1997.  By year end 2000, there were 344 members.  During the 2000s, membership steadily grew to 507 in 2002, 612 in 2005, and 874 in 2007.  Most years over the past decade have experienced membership growth rates over 10%.  In 2010, one in 80,800 was LDS. 

Congregational Growth

Branches: 4 Groups: 4

The Addis Ababa Branch - the first in the country - was organized in January 1994.  Two additional branches were organized in 2001 and 2002 in Addis Ababa and Debre Zeit.  In the spring of 2008, a fourth branch was organized in Awasa.  In late 2009, the Addis Ababa Ethiopia District was organized and included all four branches.  In 2010, the Gurji Group was formed for Sudanese membersin Addis Ababa and in early 2011, a group was formed in Shashemene and full-time missionaries were assigned to the city.

Activity and Retention

275 attended the dedication of the first church meetinghouse in 2003.[7]  200 attended the 2004 fireside with Elder Nelson.[8]  Elder Jeffrey R. Holland visited Ethiopia in August 2009, held a fireside, and met with 350-400 members and missionaries.  107 were enrolled in seminary and institute during the 2009-2010 school year. 

The Bekulobet Branch had over 50 active members in 2010.  The Megenagna and Debre Zeit Branches each had over 100 active members at this time.  The Awasa Branch consisted of a couple dozen Church attendees.  In May 2011, 90 attended the Awasa Branch, 90 attended the Bekulobet Branch, 73 attended the Gurji Group, and approximately 100 each attended the Debre Zeit and Megenanga Branches.  Nationwide active membership is estimated at 450, or 40% of total membership. 

Language Materials

Languages with LDS Scripture: Amharic

Only the Book of Mormon is available in Amharic.  Some of the LDS Church materials translated into Amharic include Gospel Fundamentals, Melchizedek Priesthood and Relief Society materials, and various Church proclamations such as The Family: A Proclamation to the World.  The Church has translated the Testimony of the Prophet Joseph Smith and Gospel Fundamentals into Afar and has translated the Testimony of the Prophet Joseph Smith and Gospel Principles into Somali.


In 2003, the first Church built meetinghouse was dedicated in Addis Ababa.   Housing the Megenagna Branch, the meetinghouse was dedicated by Elder Steven E. Snow of the Seventy, the president of the Africa Southeast Area at the time. [9]  A second church-built meetinghouse in Debre Zeit began construction in July 2009. 

Health and Safety

Endemic tropical diseases, poor sanitation conditions, and limited health care infrastructure in many areas present health challenges.  In 2007, the estimated HIV/AIDS infection rate for the adult population was 2.1%. 

Humanitarian and Development Work

Latter-day Saints have carried out many humanitarian and development work projects in Ethiopia since 1985.  The Church has consistently provided food and education on more efficient agricultural techniques.  Food donations of 4,000 tons of wheat were delivered in 2000 for Ethiopia and neighboring Eritrea.[10]  Utah members embarked on a short humanitarian mission to improve drinking water sanitation and deliver eye glasses.[11]  Another shipment of food donations were provided in 2003 in the form of Atmit, a nutrient that is nutritious and easily digested for those suffering from starvation.[12]  Between March and November 2003 the Church provided more than 5,700 tons of Atmit to Ethiopia,[13]  and much of the relief provided was done in conjunction with the Catholic Church.[14]  Another shipment of Atmit was sent to Ethiopia due to worsening drought in 2008.[15]  The Church has also provided millions in Ethiopia with Measles vaccinations.[16]  Relations between the Ethiopian government and the Church are strong due to past humanitarian relief.[17]  Local Ethiopian members have also engaged in service projects as a part of the Mormon Helping Hands program.  Clean water projects, neonatal resuscitation education, and wheel chair donations have also occurred regularly.[18]


Opportunities, Challenges and Prospects

Religious Freedom

Latter-day Saints assemble and proselyte freely in Ethiopia.  The Church has experienced some challenges regarding visas and discrimination of missionaries from certain African countries.  Humanitarian and development work occurs in many areas without government restrictions.  Attending the dedication of the first LDS meetinghouse in 2003, President Raymond Botterell of the Kenya Nairobi Mission offered thanks to the Ethiopian government for allowing missionaries to proselyte in the country, likely as a result of good relationships maintained due to the Church's humanitarian projects.[19]  The Church operates independent congregations only in three urban areas.  Some religious freedom restrictions may occur in currently unreached areas for missionary activity, primarily in border regions and in the north. 

Cultural Issues

Famine, drought, and poverty have severely affected large numbers of Ethiopians.  The Church hesitates to conduct missionary work in areas where basic needs are not met, which has limited the growth of the Church in Ethiopia.  These conditions have necessitated humanitarian and development projects, which have strengthened ties with the government and in the long term can facilitate national outreach expansion.  The influence of Islam and Orthodox Christianity on society presents challenges for missionaries, but can be addressed if teaching and mission outreach programs are adjusted to meet these conditions.  Low substance abuse rates for alcohol and cigarettes are in harmony with LDS teachings.  The Church may face challenges with the widespread use of qat.  

National Outreach

Mission outreach centers operate in four cities, all of which have over 100,000 inhabitants.  Fewer than four percent of Ethiopians reside in areas with access to LDS congregations and missionaries, and most of the population in areas with mission outreach centers have generally never heard of the LDS Church and are unaware of its teachings.  Additional areas may open to missionary work as Latter-day Saints move to cities without a current Church presence and share the gospel with family and friends living in currently unreached areas.  

Ethiopia's rural population accounts for 83% of the national population and is almost totally unreached by Latter-day Saints.  There are meaningful short-term opportunities for Latter-day Saints to expand national outreach in several of these areas where there are unofficial groups of prospective members awaiting baptizing.  A group of Sudanese refugees has been functioning in the small, far western Ethiopian city of Gambela since 2007.  The group had two baptized members and 50-70 people attending Church meetings in 2009.  In 2009, missionaries reported that a group of investigators traveled to Debre Zeit from a small village called Leebengadula located a couple hours away.  Due to the remote location of Leebengadula, missionaries taught the investigators in Debre Zeit and did not baptize members from the group until its members developed regular habits of Church attendance and gospel living.  Few local LDS leaders and missionaries have prevented the establishment of formal mission outreach centers in these locations thus far. 

Distance from mission headquarters in Kampala, Uganda is a major a challenge for mission leadership which has constricted the church's regular activities to a handful of locations and discourages travel to remote areas of the country.  In the late 2000s, the Uganda Kampala Missions added Rwanda and Southern Sudan to its jurisdiction.  In late 2010, neither country had proselytizing missionaries assigned, but the assignment of additional countries to the mission requires mission leadership to delegate time and resources to a larger population and mission field.  Ethiopia currently has the second largest membership within the boundaries of the Uganda Kampala Mission and will likely not experience much less attention and resources in the near future compared to prior the addition of Rwanda and Sudan, but may receive fewer  young missionary, senior missionary couples, and mission president visits in the future which in turn could delay expansion of national outreach. 

The Church has made some progress in expanding national outreach in the late 2000s.  Located over 100 miles south of Addis Ababa, the remote Awasa Branch created in 2008 included only a couple dozen members and investigators in 2010.  A member family had met in their home for Church meetings for five years previously as a group.  A year after the branch was organized missionaries reported on teaching the branch president how to call counselors and provided training to other members.  Missionaries temporarily labored in the city for a week or two, holding a fireside before departing with 33 in attendance in 2009.  A similar process was unfolding in Shashemene in 2011 as a group was organized a full-time missionaries were assigned.  There is a high potential for additional cities to have mission outreach centers established in a similar manner, especially in the Awasa and Addis Ababa areas.

Member Activity and Convert Retention

Member activity rates of less than 50% point to convert retention problems despite manageable membership growth and strong member-missionary efforts since the country's first branch was organized.  Missionaries serving in the country report that nearly all converts who join the Church were referred by Church members and that local members regularly accompany missionaries to teaching appointments, largely to assist with translation.  Language barriers and miscommunication may be sources of misunderstanding and lower member activity.

The Church has taken great concern in improving member activity and convert retention rates in recent years by focusing on teaching and strengthening youth.  In 2006 Ethiopian young women gathered for a young women's conference in Addis Ababa.  A total of 18 women attended from the country's three branches.  The young women were taught about the Light of Christ and spent time fellowshipping one another.[20]  In 2007, a conference was held to prepare for young men to serve missions.  A total of 16 young men attended the conference and learned about the importance of proper hygiene, diet, and teaching the gospel.[21]  In July 2009 a conference in Ethiopia was held for youth and young adults to strengthen their testimonies and interact with members throughout the country.  About half of the 160 attendees were not Latter-day Saints.  Seminary and institute enrollment more than doubled in the late 2000s, indicating progress in augmenting the number of active members.

Ethnic Issues and Integration

Missionaries reported no ethnic integration issues as of 2010.  Potential for future conflict  at church is high for some areas if rival ethnic groups meet in the same congregations.  However, the Church's outreach is too limited currently to experience greater challenges with ethnic integration as there are no Latter-day Saints among most ethnic groups.

Language Issues

The large number of indigenous languages spoken in Ethiopia challenges efforts to opening additional areas for missionary work.  Amharic is the only language in Ethiopia which has multiple Church materials and the Book of Mormon translated.  Ethiopians without any Church literature translated into their native language make up 74% of the population, indicating that the Church has much to accomplish in translating Church materials and scriptures into native languages in the country.  The Oromo language may be the most likely language to have some Church materials translated due to the large number of speakers of Oromo which reside in or near areas where the Church in currently established.  Low literacy rates in many areas challenge efforts for members to be self-sufficient in learning about the teachings of the church and actively contributing to church administration.

Missionaries struggle to learn and teach about the church in the Amharic language.  This has come as a result of no formal Amharic teaching to missionaries before they arrive in the mission field and missionaries transferring to and from Uganda where missionaries teach in English.  Missionaries in Ethiopia usually teach investigators with a Church member who translates from English to Amharic.  Teaching with a member present involves local membership in member-missionary work.  A lack of language proficiency from missionaries limits teaching to only when members are available to translate and also reduces the scope and efficacy of full-time missionaries responsibilities to teach in their own words.  Missionaries unable to speak Amharic results in communication problems with local members who do not speak English.  In 2009, missionaries made some improvement in their language abilities, but there is still a major need for greater competency in Amharic by full-time missionaries.

Missionary Service

By mid-2009, 14 young full-time elders were serving in the country in addition to at least two senior missionary couples.  Ethiopia has increased the number of local members serving full-time missions, but remains dependent on foreign missionaries to staff its full-time missionary force.  In 2009, a zone of missionaries worked in Ethiopia, most of which were in Addis Ababa.  A second zone of only two missionary companionships was organized in Awasa in 2011.  Recent missionary preparation classes for youth and young adults and increasing seminary and institute attendance may increase the number of Ethiopians serving missions, which in the long-term can assist in expanding national outreach and developing local leadership.


All four branches appear led by local members.  The creation of the first district in 2009 indicates that local church members serving in leadership positions have increased in number and in independence.  Low economic self-reliance and few career opportunities in many areas challenge the Church to develop leadership with the resources and skills to lead their congregations proficiently. 


Ethiopia is assigned to the Johannesburg South Africa Temple district.  Few members have been to the temple.  Temple trips have begun to occur more frequently but typically visit the Accra Ghana Temple.  Travel to the temple requires significant sacrifice of time and money resulting in few members who have attended the temple.  Additional temples may be constructed closer to Ethiopia, but travel time and expenses would only slightly be reduced. 

Comparative Growth

The Church's presence in Ethiopia is very small.  For every 93,000 people there is one Church member - the second lowest percentage out of African countries in which the Church publishes its presence in, the lowest being Rwanda.  Membership growth rates over the past decade have been average for African nations with fewer than 1,000 members, yet most African nations which had their initial LDS Church establishment in the early 1990s today have significantly larger church memberships, like Uganda and Kenya where there is a stake, a full-time mission, and over 8,000 members.  If the ratio of missions to the national population were consistent with most Latin American countries, Latter-day Saints would operate between 15 and 20 full-time LDS missions in Ethiopia.  Member activity rate appear average for the region. 

Other missionary-oriented Christian denominations operate in Ethiopia, experience rapid growth, and have had a longer presence than Latter-day Saints.  There over 8,000 active Jehovah's Witnesses in 159 congregations and over 165,000 Seventh Day Adventists in 801 churches.  Other denominations tend to place greater emphasis on opening congregations and teaching their doctrines in areas where there are little to no members of their churches whereas the LDS Church tends to wait to open additional areas to missionary work until many members reside in a particular area.  Much of the reason for the why the LDS Church has been less successful at rapidly opening new areas and congregations stems from few missionary resources devoted to the country.

Future Prospects

President Hinckley visited members of the Church from Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania, and Uganda in Nairobi, Kenya in February 1998 and predicted that the Church would grow in Kenya and surrounding countries.  He stated, "here there are now hundreds, there will be thousands, there will be tens of thousands. This gospel is true; it will spread over the earth."[22] 

In 2010, this prediction had yet to be fully realized.  The small size of the LDS Church in Ethiopia today comes as the result of the large, rapidly growing population of Ethiopia, which has been highly underserved as a result of few LDS missions assigned to the country, the short time in which the Church operated in the country, and modest membership and congregational growth.  Ethiopia is in tremendous need of its own LDS mission due to its large population, burgeoning LDS membership, high potential for self-sustaining church growth, long distance from current mission headquarters, and few mission resources currently devoted to the country.  Additional branches will likely be organized in the short-term in Addis Ababa, Debre Zeit, and remote areas where members and investigators currently meet in groups or travel long distances for Church meetings.  The Gurji and Shashamene Groups may become branches in the near future.

[1]  Mariam, Alemayehu G.  "Ethiopia: The Voodoo Economics of Meles Zenawi,", 22 April 2010.

[2]  "Ethiopia," International Religious Freedom Report 2009, 26 October 2009.

[3]  "Ethiopia," International Religious Freedom Report 2009, 26 October 2009.

[4]  Orden, Dell Van.  "'Am I my brother's keeper?'," LDS Church News, 29 November 1997.

[5]  Stahle, Shaun D.  "Growing strength among members in Africa," LDS Church News, 4 December 2004.

[6]  Stahle, Shaun D.  "Missions created on opposite sides of Africa," LDS Church News, 11 June 2005.

[7]  "First meetinghouse in east Africa nation," LDS Church News, 20 December 2003.

[8]  Stahle, Shaun D.  "Growing strength among members in Africa," LDS Church News, 4 December 2004.

[9]  "First meetinghouse in east Africa nation," LDS Church News, 20 December 2003.

[10]  Weaver, Sarah Jane.  "Church sends wheat to Africa for famine relief," LDS Church News, 17 June 2000.

[11]  "Humanitarian expedition," LDS Church News, 4 August 2001.

[12]  "Emergency food sent to Ethiopia," LDS Church News, 15 March 2003.

[13]  Weaver, Sarah Jane.  "'Life saving dust' to help drought-stricken Ethiopia," LDS Church News, 1 November 2003.

[14]  Lloyd, Scott R.  "With 'Catholic friends': Reaching out to the distressed," LDS Church News, 16 October 2004.

[15]  Weaver, Sarah Jane.  "Church sending Atmit to aid famine-stricken children in Ethiopia," LDS Church News, 14 September 2008.

[16]  Lloyd, R. Scott.  "Sacred trust to heal physically, spiritually," LDS Church News, 17 April 2009.

[17]  Johnson, Page.  "Black heritage commemorated," LDS Church News, 14 February 2004.

[18]  "Projects - Ethiopia," Humanitarian Activities Worldwide, retrieved 30 September 2010.,13501,4607-1-2008-97,00.html

[19]  "First meetinghouse in east Africa nation," LDS Church News, 20 December 2003.

[20]  "Young women meet in Ethiopia," LDS Church News, 4 March 2006.

[21]  "Preparing for missions," LDS Church News, 22 September 2007.

[22]  Hart, John L.  "'This work will grow and grow in this land'," LDS Church News, 28 February 1998.